The present results with the human microbiota suggest that, at least in the individuals who provided samples here, amino acid utilizing bacteria are more dominant than peptide utilizers. The results with faecal samples from omnivores compared to vegetarians were inconclusive in terms of NH3 production, but the ranking order of dissimilation of different amino acids was similar. The influence of monensin was different with different amino acids. Pro, Ala and Glu were inhibited most, with Asp and Lys affected only to a minor extent. Once again, the reason for this difference is unclear,
but presumably reflects the inhibition of some transport systems and not others, or possibly a differential inhibition of species that metabolize different amino acids [17, 18]. One of the principal aims of this work was to investigate if, by analogy with the rumen, HAP bacteria were present in the human colon. Conditions of low-carbohydrate, high-protein
Selumetinib mouse nutrient availability would favour bacteria able to derive energy from amino acids, particularly in the distal colon, but the general procedure of routinely adding sugars to growth media may have concealed these bacteria in culture-based studies. There had been a long-held assumption for the rumen that a large group of bacteria identified many years ago  was responsible for ruminal amino acid deamination. Russell and his colleagues at Cornell University challenged this assumption, and check details isolated less numerous, but much more active, asaccharolytic, obligately peptide-fermenting bacteria, the HAP ID-8 species . SGC-CBP30 nmr Growth of HAP bacteria was inhibited by monensin, while the more numerous NH3 producers were unaffected, yet NH3 production by the mixed ruminal microbiota was monensin-sensitive. The present paper suggests that the human microbiota has an NH3-producing
activity about one-third that of the rumen . Nevertheless, it is clear that a substantial fraction of NH3 production from peptides and amino acids is monensin-sensitive, so the possibility existed that HAP species were present in human colonic digesta. Bacteria capable of growth on peptides as energy source were variable in number, averaging 3.5% of the total viable count. This proportion is somewhat higher than was found in ruminal digesta [16–18]. Actual numbers varied from 0.8 × 107 to 3.5 × 108 (g wet wt)-1, which compares with 1011 per g dry weight on peptone medium measured by Smith & Macfarlane . Numbers capable of growth on amino acids were almost as high as those growing on Trypticase, which is a complete contrast to the rumen, where numbers of amino acids utilizers were two orders of magnitude less than Trypticase utilizers . Thus, the bacterial population capable of using protein breakdown products in the human colon was more numerous than in the rumen, but less active, and differed in its much lower preference for peptides.