Barcode scanning was more accurate than drop-down menus, and is f

Barcode scanning was more accurate than drop-down menus, and is faster for recording vaccine data compared to typing vaccine lot numbers. By thoroughly testing barcode scanning in live settings, we gained a better understanding of the complexities of its integration into existing workflows. Adopting new technologies in healthcare settings has often introduced risks such as increased user workload, communication breakdowns, and fragmentation of information [20] and [21]. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library In both case studies, our readability data indicate that users may expect immediate success with

scanning. Some nurses switched from barcode scanning to the manual method when vial barcodes were not read promptly (i.e., within 2 s). Therefore, more work is needed to ensure optimal barcode readability. It is important to choose a scanner that is both affordable for public health agencies and sufficiently sensitive to read the small barcodes. GS1 Canada has developed a scanning guide to aid new adopters in this decision [22]. Adequate training must be provided to ensure comfort with scanning and the optimal technique, and users must have sufficient technical support. Our interviews indicated

that users were very satisfied with the training sessions, and that the combination of one-on-one instruction, practice time with dummy vials, and an on-site barcode scanning expert check details is an ideal training model. Finally, vaccine manufacturers must ensure that their production lines are printing barcodes at an adequate darkness for scanning. Study participants reported that the smaller unit dose vials were most problematic; although the barcodes are the same size as those on multi-dose influenza vials, the smaller size of the actual vial leads to greater curvature of the barcode, which may explain the scanning difficulties. These types of challenges have been previously identified in studies evaluating the use of barcode scanning technology for medication administration

in hospitals and healthcare institutions in North America. While scanning has been found to effectively reduce the isothipendyl rate of human errors associated with dispensing, transcribing and administering medications [1], [4] and [5], it has also been problematic to users for reasons including troublesome scanners, barcode not being readable (smudged, torn, etc.), and inadequate training [21]. Our interviews with immunization staff also demonstrated that users anticipate that this technology will improve record quality and efficiency. The workflow used in this evaluation (scanning after vaccine administration) was chosen because of the nursing practice of recording vaccine information into immunization records following vaccination rather than before, in case the vaccine does not end up being administered.

There are obvious limitations of extrapolating the indirect evide

There are obvious limitations of extrapolating the indirect evidence from this study. Nonetheless, along with studies demonstrating an effect of ES cycling on venous return (Elokda et al 2000, Faghri and Yount 2002, Sampson et al 2000), the study by Man and colleagues indicates some basis

for the rationale Selleckchem MK2206 that FES cycling in people with spinal cord injury influences venous return and lower limb swelling; a conclusion not supported by our leg circumference results. The results from the small number of studies examining the effects of FES cycling on spasticity are similar to ours with no clear indication of therapeutic effect (Krause et al 2008, Skold et al 2002, van der Salm et al 2006). The potential effect of FES cycling on urine output may have been missed because we only measured urine output over a one-hour period immediately after FES cycling. One hour may

be too short. However this seems unlikely because naturetic peptide has an immediate effect on the kidneys (Dunn and Donnelly 2007). If the release of naturetic peptide in response to an increase in venous return is the main mechanism by which FES cycling increases urine output, then our time frame for measurements of urine output should have been sufficient. Another possible explanation for our failure selleck inhibitor to find a convincing treatment effect is our use of a short intervention period, namely two weeks. A longer training period may have increased participants’ muscle bulk and stimulated strength (Baldi et al 1998) thereby Electron transport chain enhancing the muscle pump effect and venous return. Venous return may have been further increased by the stimulation of additional lower limb muscles however stimulation of more than three muscle groups is problematic as this requires additional expensive equipment not routinely available in the clinical setting. Future studies could manipulate some of these variables to determine their effect on urine output. Only the immediate effects of FES cycling were investigated and only at the

impairment level. We acknowledge that urine output, lower limb swelling and spasticity are surrogate measures for what is important to people with spinal cord injury, and clearly immediate effects are of little interest unless they are sustained. We however restricted the trial in this way to increase statistical power. In addition, it is potentially wasteful of resources looking for sustained effects of interventions on global measures of participation without first demonstrating immediate effects on surrogate measures. Importantly, FES cycling is advocated in people with motor complete lesions for reasons other than its effect on urine output, lower limb swelling and spasticity. For example, it is advocated on the basis that it increases cardiovascular fitness, muscle bulk and lean muscle mass.

0367) so that weight gain was seen in workgroups with high BMI le

0367) so that weight gain was seen in workgroups with high BMI levels. Quadratic effects showed that smoking cessation was indeed predicted by the percentage of smokers in the group, in that smoking cessation happened in the workgroups with the largest share of smokers (p = 0.0258). However, change in LTPA was not associated with the average activity level in the group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of workgroups with regard to health behaviours and lifestyle changes. We investigated whether workgroups would account for part of the variation within health behaviours

and lifestyle changes. We found evidence for cluster BAY 73-4506 mw effects regarding current health behaviours; part of the variation in BMI, smoking status and amount smoked was explained by workgroups (2.62%, 6.49% and 6.56%, respectively). Workgroups Ku-0059436 manufacturer explained little of the variation in LTPA. With regard to changes in lifestyle, we found no significant effect of workgroups on variation in smoking cessation, smoking reduction, change in BMI, or change in physical activity. We did find that workgroup weight change depended on the average level of BMI in the group. Also, workgroup smoking cessation was seen in groups with larger shares of smokers. However, the average LTPA level did not predict change in LTPA level. Christakis and Fowler, 2007 and Christakis and Fowler, 2008 found clustering effects for obesity

and smoking cessation. Other researchers (Cohen-Cole and Fletcher, 2008a, Cohen-Cole and Fletcher, 2008b and Lyons, 2011) have suggested that the association could be explained by shared environmental factors and a tendency of forming relationships with people who have similar characteristics (homophily). Subsequent sensitivity analyses of the original studies found that the findings regarding obesity and smoking were reasonably robust to latent homophily and unmeasured environmental factors (VanderWeele, 2011). Another study using the methods of Christakis and Fowler found that attributes such as acne, height Linifanib (ABT-869) and headaches also seemed

to spread through social ties (Cohen-Cole and Fletcher, 2008a). This has led some authors to question the interpretation of the original findings (Cohen-Cole and Fletcher, 2008a) while others conclude that the original findings of contagion effects cannot be dismissed (VanderWeele, 2011). A potential advantage of our study is the use of a different methodology. Similar to Christakis and colleagues, our baseline might be influenced by homophily, but in our design, clustering of change could not have been explained by homophily. Since we only found significant effect of workgroup on baseline health behaviour, our study cannot rule out homophily as an explanation of the clustering of health behaviours. To reduce the risk of residual confounding we controlled for occupational position, lifestyle factors, and age, gender and cohabitation.

9% for each of the three strains With these enrollment targets,

9% for each of the three strains. With these enrollment targets, safety events that occurred in 2% of 150 subjects, 1% of 300 subjects,

and in 0.5% of 600 subjects were detectable with a probability of 0.95. All vaccines were formulated as recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration for the 2007/2008 influenza season and contained the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1), Selleck VE821 A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 strains. The investigational ID vaccines were manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur (Swiftwater, PA) and contained either 15 μg (batch UD09995) or 21 μg (batch UD09996) of HA per strain in 0.1 mL in a prefilled BD Soluvia microinjection device bearing a staked 30-gauge, 1.5 mm intradermal needle. The HD vaccine (Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA; batch UD09997) contained 60 μg of HA per strain and the SD vaccine (Fluzone®, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA; older adults, batch UD10002; adults, batch UD09999) contained 15 μg of HA per strain in ready-to-use 0.5-mL syringes and were delivered by the IM route. Older adult subjects (≥65 years

of age) were randomized 2:2:1:1 using an interactive computer system to receive a single dose of the 15 μg ID vaccine, the 21 μg ID vaccine, HD vaccine, or SD vaccine. All younger adult subjects were assigned to receive the SD vaccine. All vaccines were administered into the deltoid area of the upper arm. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 28 days after vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were measured Imatinib using a standard

assay [19]. The serum HI antibody titer was defined as the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution that completely inhibited hemagglutination. To calculate GMTs, samples with HI not reaching 100% at the lowest serum dilution tested (1:10) were assigned a titer of 5. Seroconversion in a subject was defined by either a pre-vaccination HI titer <1:10 and a day-28 titer ≥1:40 or by a pre-vaccination titer ≥1:10 and a minimum four-fold titer increase at day 28. Seroprotection was defined as a pre- or post-vaccination HI titer ≥1:40. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded according to the International Conference on Harmonization Guideline MRIP for Clinical Safety Data Management: Definitions and Standards for Expedited Reporting [20]. Solicited systemic reactions (fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and chills) and solicited injection-site reactions (pain, erythema, swelling, induration, ecchymosis, and pruritus) were recorded by subjects on diary cards for up to 7 days following vaccination. Other non-serious unsolicited AEs were recorded by patients up to 28 days after vaccination. Serious adverse events were recorded by investigators up to 6 months after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling, induration, and ecchymosis were considered grade 1 if <2.5 cm, grade 2 if ≥2.5 to <5 cm, and grade 3 if ≥5 cm. Fever was considered grade 1 if ≥99.5 °F and ≤100.4 °F (≥37.5 °C to ≤38 °C), grade 2 if >100.4 °F and ≤102.

6% of investigational vaccine recipients and ≤7 8% of PHiD-CV rec

6% of investigational vaccine recipients and ≤7.8% of PHiD-CV recipients) (Fig. 2). Post-booster, pain was the most common solicited local symptom for most groups (Fig. 2). Specific grade 3 solicited local symptoms were reported for 0.0–9.6% of investigational vaccine recipients and for 0.0–6.0%

of PHiD-CV recipients (Fig. 2). Irritability was the most common solicited general symptom following primary and booster vaccination (Fig. 3). One or more solicited general symptoms were reported for up to 59.6% of participants post-dose 1, 47.1% post-dose 2 and 50.0% post-booster in the investigational groups, and for up to 51.0% post-dose 1, 54.0% post-dose 2 and 38.0% post-booster in the PHiD-CV group (Fig. 3). Incidences of grade 3 solicited general symptoms ranged from 0.0% to 3.9% post-dose 1 and from 0.0% to 2.0% Dactolisib post-dose 2 in the investigational groups; none were reported for

PHiD-CV, except irritability post-dose 2 (2.0%). Post-booster, grade 3 solicited general symptoms were reported by 0.0–3.9% of investigational vaccine recipients and by 0.0–2.0% of PHiD-CV recipients (Fig. 3). Five large swelling reactions were reported: one occurring post-dose 1 and three post-booster in the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 group, and one post-dose 2 in the PHiD-CV group. All large swelling reactions were local reactions around the injection site with a diameter of 53–100 mm and onset on day 0 or 1 after vaccination. All resolved completely within maximum two days. Unsolicited AEs considered vaccine-related were reported for one toddler (injection site fibrosis) following dPly/PhtD-10 primary vaccination, for two toddlers (vomiting and injection click here site fibrosis) after dPly/PhtD-10 booster, for one Sodium butyrate toddler (rhinitis) after PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 booster and for one toddler (rhinitis, insomnia and cough) after PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 booster. Grade 3 unsolicited AEs were reported for 11 toddlers after primary vaccination (Table S1) and for one toddler after dPly/PhtD-30 booster vaccination (cystitis). Overall, 23 SAEs were reported in 17 toddlers (five, dPly/PhtD-10; three, dPly/PhtD-30; five, PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10; four, PHiD-CV).

None of the SAEs were fatal or considered by the investigators to be vaccine-related; all resolved without sequelae except one (type 1 diabetes mellitus), which was improving at the time of study end. Pre-dose 1, 61.0–75.6% of toddlers in each group were seropositive for PhtD (antibody concentration ≥391 LU/mL). In the investigational vaccine groups, these percentages increased to at least 97.7% one month post-dose 2 and pre-booster, reaching 100% post-booster. In the PHiD-CV group, 85.0–85.4% of toddlers were seropositive for anti-PhtD antibodies at these post-vaccination timepoints (Table 1). A high baseline seropositivity rate for anti-Ply antibodies (antibody concentrations ≥599 LU/mL) was seen in all groups (75.0–88.6%). Seropositivity rates increased in all investigational groups to at least 97.

“Summary of: Machado LAC et al (2010) The effectiveness of

“Summary of: Machado LAC et al (2010) The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial BMC Medicine 8: 10. [Prepared by Julia Hush, CAP Editor.] Question: Does the addition of McKenzie treatment to first-line care improve symptoms and function for patients with acute low back pain? Design: A randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment. Setting: 27 primary care medical practices in Sydney, Australia. Participants: Patients aged between 18 to selleck kinase inhibitor 80 years seeking

medical care from a primary care physician for a new episode of acute non-specific low back pain. Nerve root compromise, serious spinal pathology, and recent spinal surgery were exclusion criteria. Randomisation of

148 participants allotted 73 to the McKenzie treatment and first-line care group, and 73 to a first-line care only group. Interventions: Both groups received the following recommended first-line care for acute low back pain: advice to remain active and avoid bed rest, reassurance of a favourable prognosis and instructions to take paracetamol. In addition, the intervention group received Selleck MDV3100 McKenzie therapy, commenced within 48 h of their physician consultation. Treatment was provided by 15 accredited McKenzie therapists. Treatment for most patients encouraged directions of movement and postures that centralised pain. Patients received up to 6 treatment sessions over 3 weeks. They were provided with the book Treat Your Own Back, prescribed home exercises, and most were prescribed

lumbar rolls. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were pain and global perceived effect. Pain was measured during the first 7 days, and at Weeks 1 and 3, with the Numerical Rating Scale scored from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain possible), with a between-group difference of 1 unit considered clinically important. Patient-rated global perceived effect was assessed at 3 weeks on a –5 to 5 scale, anchored GPX6 at ‘vastly worse’ and ‘completely recovered.’ Secondary outcome measures were disability, function, global perceived effect at 1 week, persistent low back pain at 3 months, and use of additional health care services. Results: 138 participants provided data at 3 months. At Week 1, pain was less in the McKenzie treatment group by 0.4 points (95% CI –0.1 to –0.8). At Week 3, pain was less in the McKenzie treatment group by 0.7 points (95% CI –1.2 to –0.1). The groups did not differ on other outcomes. However, patients receiving McKenzie treatment sought less additional health care than those receiving only firstline care (p = 0.002).

HIV envelope proteins are notoriously poorly immunogenic Contrar

HIV envelope proteins are notoriously poorly immunogenic. Contrary to our previously conducted rabbit experiments Lapatinib molecular weight [14] prior experiments in mice have indicated that i.vag as a sole route of administration for CN54gp140 alone does not elicit

detectable immune responses (unpublished data). As a result we selected a heterologous prime-boost regimen, increasingly prevalent in HIV vaccine research [21]. Remarkably, all topically administered i.vag formulations boosted sub-cutaneously primed mice, importantly in the absence of adjuvant. Of the responses detected locally within the vagina we cannot rule out, as has been reported in HIV infection [22], that serum transudation contributed. Nevertheless, the LSDF inserts have been shown to be a viable delivery modality for i.vag immunization. With respect to immunogenicity the study data indicated that in the case of the mouse model the LSDFs were not offering any additional benefits over i.vag administration of CN54gp140 formulated within PBS buffer alone. Perhaps with the exception

of lyophilized Carbopol® that may be prolonging or augmenting CN54gp140-specific systemic humoral effector immune Enzalutamide ic50 responses. The formulation (lyo-PC3HEC250HHX5PVP4) with the slowest release induces the lowest response, whereas the formulation (lyo-Carbopol®) with the fastest release closest to the PBS alone scenario marginally prolongs or augments the response. How translational this may be to other animal models, in particular NHPs and more importantly to humans is yet to be determined but this may be indicative that sustained release is not required rather an initial high burst release may suffice. The perceived benefits such as enhanced retention that drive such formulation development with respect to improving immune responses may not be wholly realised due to the size restrictions of the murine vaginal lumen. However although the LSDFs did not augment immune responses in comparison to those following administration of antigen in

PBS alone the problems associated with human i.vag Endonuclease administration of vaccines in simple buffer solutions are not to be underestimated. As such the LSDFs that elicited comparable immune responses to those of the PBS group have the potential to provide additional attributes for vaginal mucosal vaccine delivery in humans. LSDFs can be self-administered with relative ease using conventional solid dosage vaginal applicators, compared to the instillation of buffers and to the administration of semi-solids, thus promoting higher acceptability and enhanced user compliance. The stability advantages have the potential to eliminate the requirement for cold-chain storage, and the reduction in weight associated with the removal of water could reduce constraints on distribution including expense.

Criteria 1 to 4 assess external validity, Criteria 5 to 9 assess

Criteria 1 to 4 assess external validity, Criteria 5 to 9 assess internal validity, and Criterion 10 assesses statistical methods ( Box 2). Criteria were rated as ‘yes’, ‘no’, or ‘unclear’ where insufficient information was provided. External validity was considered sufficient if Criteria 1 to 4 were rated ‘yes’. With respect to internal validity, Criteria 5, 6, and 7 were assumed to be decisive

in determining risk of bias. A study was considered to have a low risk of bias if Criteria 5, 6, and 7 were all rated ‘yes’, a moderate risk if two of these criteria were rated ‘yes’, and a high risk if none or only one of these criteria were rated ‘yes’. After training, two reviewers (EvT, RJvdP) independently assessed methodological quality of all included studies and were not blind to journal, authors, and results. If discrepancy between reviewers persisted, Pictilisib in vitro a decisive judgement was passed by a third reviewer (CL). 1. Was a representative sample of participants used? Data were analysed Lumacaftor concentration by examining ICC and Kappa (95% CI). If at least 75% of a study’s ICC or Kappa values were above 0.75, the study was considered to have shown acceptable reliability (Burdock et al 1963, cited by Kramer and Feinstein

1981). Corresponding Kappa levels were used as assigned by Landis and Koch (1977) where < 0.00 = poor, 0.00–0.20 = slight, 0.21–0.40 = fair, 0.41–0.60 = moderate, 0.61–0.80 = substantial, and 0.81–1.00 = almost perfect reliability. In addition, reliability was

analysed relating it to characteristics of the studies (participants’ clinical characteristics, raters’ profession and training, movement performed, method of measurement) and methodological quality. Reliability from studies GBA3 not fulfilling Criteria 5 or 6 could have been underestimated, while reliability from studies not fulfilling Criterion 7 could have been overestimated. Negative scores on combinations of Criteria 5–7 could have led to bias in an unknown direction. Where one or more of these three criteria were rated ‘unknown’ because insufficient information was provided, no statement was made regarding the presence or direction of potential bias. Finally, clinical and methodological characteristics of included studies were examined for homogeneity in order to judge the possibility of statistically summarising results by calculating pooled estimates of reliability. Searching MEDLINE yielded 199 citations, of which 29 papers were retrieved in full text. After removing double citations, EMBASE (196 citations) provided another three potentially relevant studies. CINAHL (98 citations) then yielded no additional relevant articles. Hand searching of reference lists identified another 14 potentially eligible studies.

Cells were analyzed by using a FACSRIA II apparatus and Flowjo so

Cells were analyzed by using a FACSRIA II apparatus and Flowjo software (both from Becton Dickinson Biosciences). To examine the incorporation of the native and chimeric gDs into the NDV virions, SPF embryonated eggs were infected with rNDV and allantoic fluid was harvested

48 h postinfection. The allantoic fluids were clarified by low-speed centrifugation, and the viruses were concentrated by ultracentrifugation through a 25% w/v sucrose in PBS at 130,000 × g at 4 °C for 2 h and resuspended in PBS. The viral proteins in the purified virus preparations were analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie GW3965 in vitro blue staining. The pathogenicity of the recombinant viruses for chickens was determined by two internationally-established in vivo tests: the mean death time (MDT) test in 9-day-old SPF embryonated chicken eggs and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) test in 1-day-old SPF chickens. The MDT test was performed by a standard procedure [21]. Briefly, a series of 10-fold dilutions of fresh allantoic fluid from eggs infected with the test virus were made in sterile PBS, and 0.1 ml of each dilution was inoculated into the allantoic cavity of each of five 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The eggs were incubated at 37 °C and examined four times daily for 7 days. The time that each embryo was first observed dead was recorded. The highest dilution that killed all

embryos was considered the minimum lethal dose. The MDT was recorded as the time (in

h) for the minimum lethal dose to kill the embryos. The MDT has been used to classify NDV strains as velogenic (taking under 60 h to kill), mesogenic (taking between 60 and 90 h to kill), and lentogenic (taking more than 90 h to kill). The ICPI test was performed as described previously [21]. Briefly, fresh allantoic fluid from eggs infected with the test virus was diluted 10-fold and inoculated into groups of ten 1-day-old SPF chicks via the intracerebral route. The inoculation was done using a 27-gauge needle 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl attached to a 1-ml stepper syringe dispenser that was set to dispense 0.05 ml of inoculum per inoculation. The birds were observed daily for 8 days, and at each observation, the birds were scored 0 if normal, 1 if sick, and 2 if dead. The ICPI value is the mean score per bird per observation. Highly virulent viruses give values approaching 2, and avirulent viruses give values approaching 0. The gD-specific immune response to the recombinant viruses was examined in 2-week-old SPF white leghorn chickens (SPAFAS, Norwich, CT). Chickens were inoculated once with 100 μl of fresh allantoic fluid containing the rLaSota, rLaSota/gDFL or rLaSota/gDF virus (hemagglutination titer of 28) through the oculo-nasal route. Chickens were observed daily for nasal discharge or respiratory symptoms and weight loss for 2 weeks post-immunization.

One day following passive immunization (day 0), PCA levels were s

One day following passive immunization (day 0), PCA levels were significantly higher for groups that received RSV F anti-sera (p < 0.01) than those given a similar dose of palivizumab, as measured by the PCA assay ( Fig. 6A). In palivizumab treated animals, PCA serum titers were at or below the LOD for the assay except at the highest dose, whereas the PCA serum levels in cotton rats passively immunized with anti-RSV F serum were 183 μg/ml and 53 μg/ml at the 5.6 and 1.4 mg/kg dose levels, respectively. All groups were challenged 24 hours after passive immunization (day 0) with 105 pfu RSV-A Long virus. Lung tissues were collected Romidepsin datasheet on day 4 post challenge to determine viral titer by plaque assay on

homogenized tissue. The highest doses of anti-RSV F immune sera (5.6 mg/kg) and palivizumab (5.0 mg/kg) conferred apparently complete protection (Fig. 6B), reducing virus replication in the lungs >100-fold relative to the placebo. Virus replication was also significantly reduced in animals given 1.6 and 0.6 mg/kg anti-RSV F immune sera compared to the group that received pre-immune sera (p < 0.01) ( Fig. 6B). Palivizumab at 1.3 and 0.6 mg/kg induced a slight reduction in lung virus titers, but were not statistically significant when compared to the group that received pre-immune sera ( Fig. 6B). Beeler et al. [35] have identified multiple neutralizing

epitopes on RSV F protein using competitive binding assays with a FG-4592 supplier panel of RSV F monoclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibody resistant mutant (MARMs) and subsequently, antigenic sites I, II, IV, V and IV were mapped on RSV F [36]. A competitive ELISA was performed using monoclonal antibodies 1107, 1112, 1153, 1243 to identify neutralizing antibodies induced by the RSV F vaccine. Antibodies 1107, 1153 and 1243 map to antigenic sites II and I while the 1112 is more broadly reactive to sites IV, V, and VI (Table 1). Polyclonal cotton rat sera raised against Rolziracetam RSV F nanoparticle vaccine

was competitive against these RSV F monoclonal antibodies (Table 1). Antibodies competitive for antigenic site II monoclonal antibodies 1107 and 1153 were induced by the vaccine without and with adjuvant, respectively while no or minimal site II competitive antibodies were detected in sera from FI-RSV immunized and RSV infected animals (Table 1). The RSV F vaccine also induced polyclonal responses competitive with neutralizing antibodies 1112 and 1243 that recognize RSV F antigenic sites I, IV, V and VI (Table 1). RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease is the most common cause of hospitalization in infants, a common basis for infant and pediatric medical visits and a significant pathogen in the elderly and high-risk adults. Severe RSV infections in young children are clearly associated with ongoing and repeat episodes of wheezing [24], [37] and [38].