The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medic

The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medical judgments and decisions ought ideally to be made, how they are actually made in practice, Lazertinib solubility dmso and how they can be improved, given the constraints of medical practice. The field considers both clinical decisions by or for individual patients and societal decisions designed to benefit the public. Despite the relevance of decision making to medical practice, it currently receives little formal attention in the U.S. medical school curriculum. This article suggests three roles for medical decision making

in medical education. First, basic decision science would be a valuable prerequisite to medical training. Second, several decision-related competencies would be important outcomes of medical education; these include the physician’s own decision skills, the ability to guide patients in shared decisions, and knowledge of health policy decisions at the societal level. Finally, decision making could serve as a unifying principle

in the design of the medical curriculum, integrating other curricular content around BI 6727 mw the need to create physicians who are competent and caring decision makers.”
“Background: Engineered nanomaterials display unique properties that may have impact on human health, and thus require a reliable evaluation of their potential toxicity. Here, we performed a standardized in vitro screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials. We thoroughly characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials and adapted three classical in vitro toxicity assays to eliminate nanomaterial interference. Nanomaterial toxicity was assessed in ten representative cell lines.\n\nResults: Six nanomaterials induced oxidative cell stress while only a single nanomaterial reduced cellular metabolic activity and none of the particles affected click here cell viability. Results from heterogeneous and chemically identical particles suggested that surface chemistry, surface

coating and chemical composition are likely determinants of nanomaterial toxicity. Individual cell lines differed significantly in their response, dependent on the particle type and the toxicity endpoint measured.\n\nConclusion: In vitro toxicity of the analyzed engineered nanomaterials cannot be attributed to a defined physicochemical property. Therefore, the accurate identification of nanomaterial cytotoxicity requires a matrix based on a set of sensitive cell lines and in vitro assays measuring different cytotoxicity endpoints.”
“Herpesviruses cause chronic lifelong infections in humans and may cause life-threatening diseases in immunosuppressed patients. Antiviral drugs targeted to viral DNA polymerase, such as acyclovir, penciclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet and cidofovir, are currently available and have been proven to be efficient against clinical symptoms of herpesvirus infections.

Our work shows that metabolomic profiling approach is a promising

Our work shows that metabolomic profiling approach is a promising screening tool for the diagnosis and stratification of HCC patients. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 10: 10.1074/mcp.M110.004945, 1-13, 2011.”
“Our previous study indicated that aquaporin4 (AQP4) deficiency potentiated morphine analgesia, but attenuated tolerance and physical dependence induced by chronic exposure to morphine. However, the mechanisms remained to be explored. In the present study, effects of AQP4 deficiency on opioid receptor characteristics were investigated by [(3)H]-diprenorphine binding assays. In basal

condition, the K(d) values of opioid receptors increased from 0.27 +/- 0.03 nM in wild-type mice to 0.44 +/- 0.04 nM in AQP4 deficient mice. Meanwhile, the density (B x values) of opioid receptors increased from 0.40 +/- 0.04 pmol/mg protein in wild-type mice NVP-BSK805 to 0.66 +/- 0.04 pmol/mg protein in AQP4 deficient mice. After chronic morphine treatment, the affinity of opioid receptors decreased in wild-type mice, in which the Kd value increased from 0.27 +/- 0.03 nM to 0.40 +/- 0.04 nM, while no change INCB024360 research buy in the density of opioid receptors was observed. In AQP4 knockout mice, the effects of chronic morphine treatment on opioid receptors were similar to that in wild-type mice, in which the Kd values increased from 0.44 +/- 0.04 nM to 0.64 +/- 0.08 nM, whereas the density had no significant change. Taken together,

at the first time, we found that AQP4 deficiency decreased the affinity and increased the density of opioid receptors. Additionally, AQP4 deficiency did not affect chronic

morphine-induced alterations of opioid receptor characteristics. (C) Sapanisertib nmr 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background The use of real-time two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound (RTUS)-aided central venous access device (CVAD) insertion has been recommended by health-care agencies, but a realistic failure rate for bedside attempts is unknown.\n\nMethods The failure rate of RTUS-aided CVAD insertion is estimated using data from adult inpatients and outpatients referred to a tertiary referral radiology department for a new CVAD insertion during the 2.5-year period ending February 29, 2008. Cannulation failure, complications, and additional fluoroscopic interventions per central vein cannulation attempt and per patient encounter were retrospectively collected and evaluated.\n\nResults Of the 2456 consecutive patient encounters, the index central vein cannulation failure rate using only RTUS and fluoroscopy was 4.8%; ultimate failure rate was 0.3%. The procedural mortality rate was 0.04%. If the index upper-body central vein cannulation failed, an ipsilateral upper-body attempt through a different central vein failed in 63.6%, whereas a contralateral upper-body attempt failed in 26.7% (p = 0.11) and a common femoral vein attempt failed in 11.

Future research requires longitudinal designs measuring

Future research requires longitudinal designs measuring KPT-8602 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor the exact onset and duration of NSSI and suicidality.”
“Redox balance plays an important role in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals.

To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximal carbon flux towards target metabolites with no fluctuations in redox. This requires functional cofactor systems that support dynamic homeostasis between different redox states or functional stability in a given redox state. Redox balance can be achieved by improving the self-balance of a cofactor system, regulating the substrate balance of a cofactor system, and engineering the synthetic balance of a cofactor system. This review summarizes how cofactor systems can be manipulated to improve redox balance in microbes.”
“Objective: This study aimed to investigate selleck chemical the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2) in maternal and embryonic tissues in the

etiology of early pregnancy loss. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placental and decidual tissues of 80 women with spontaneous incomplete abortion (n = 20), missed abortion (n = 20), blighted ovum (n = 20) and from early terminated pregnancies (n = 20). Results: Compared with the controls, all study groups showed weaker VEGF immunoreactivity in cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts of placental villi and endothelial cells of decidua (p = 0.002, p = 0.003, p smaller than 0.001 respectively).

Decidual endothelial cells of study groups except for blighted ovum showed weaker VEGFR1 immunoreactivity as compared to controls (p smaller than 0.001). Placental villi cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts, decidual endothelial cells and endometrial gland epithelial cells showed weaker VEGFR2 immunoreactivity in all study groups compared to controls (p smaller than 0.001). Placental villi endothelial cells showed the weakest VEGFR2 immunoreactivity in incomplete abortion group and the strongest staining in the blighted ovum group GSK1838705A datasheet (p smaller than 0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that decreased expression of VEGFR1 in decidua and weaker VEGF and VEGFR2 expression in placental villi and decidua may be associated with early pregnancy loss.”
“In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use.

Evaluation Of 140 patients with recurrence showed that similar pa

Evaluation Of 140 patients with recurrence showed that similar patterns of disease Occurred during the first and second episode. independent of whether this was caused by relapse Or re-infection.”
“Mesoporous ceramics and semiconductors enable low-cost solar power, solar fuel, (photo)catalyst and electrical energy storage technologies(1). State-of-the-art, printable high-surface-area electrodes are fabricated from thermally sintered pre-formed nanocrystals(2-5). Mesoporosity provides the desired highly accessible surfaces but many applications also demand long-range electronic connectivity and structural coherence(6). A mesoporous single-crystal (MSC) semiconductor can

meet both criteria. Here we demonstrate a general synthetic Selleck Quizartinib method of growing semiconductor MSCs of anatase TiO2 based on seeded nucleation and growth inside a mesoporous template immersed in a dilute reaction solution. We show that both isolated MSCs and ensembles incorporated into films have substantially higher conductivities and electron mobilities than does nanocrystalline TiO2. Conventional nanocrystals, unlike MSCs, require in-film thermal sintering to reinforce electronic contact between particles, thus

increasing fabrication cost, limiting the use of flexible substrates and precluding, for instance, multijunction solar OICR-9429 order cell processing. Using MSC films processed entirely below 150 degrees C, we have fabricated all-solid-state, low-temperature sensitized solar cells that have 7.3 per cent efficiency, the highest efficiency yet reported. These high-surface-area anatase single crystals will find application in many different technologies, and this generic synthetic strategy extends the possibility of mesoporous single-crystal growth to a range of functional ceramics and semiconductors.”
“Nonlinear optical active L-Argininum Perchlorate single crystals are grown by slow evaporation technique. The second-order NLO properties of the molecule are studied by Kurtz Perry powder technique.

FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational wave-numbers and the first order hyperpolarizability have Selleck Fosbretabulin been calculated with the aid of density functional theoretical method. The NBO analysis explains the intramolecular interactions, electron densities within the molecule. It also confirms the presence of weak intermolecular C-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonding in the molecule. The blue-shift in CH stretching wavenumbers is due to the C-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonding. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO, LUMO energies were also calculated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The use of mechanical ventilation has become widespread in the management of hypoxic respiratory failure.

The combination with pDCs and rapamycin is requisite for Flt3L/an

The combination with pDCs and rapamycin is requisite for Flt3L/antigen-induced Treg induction because Flt3L/antigen by itself fails to induce Treg. As coadministering Flt3L, rapamycin, and antigen blocked CD8(+) T-cell and antibody responses in models of gene and protein therapy, we conclude that the differential effect of rapamycin on DC subsets can be exploited for improved tolerance induction.”
“Background. The use of negative words, such as ‘sting’ and ‘pain’, can increase patient pain and anxiety. We aimed to determine how pain scores compare with Alvocidib comfort scores and how

the technique of pain assessment affects patient perceptions and experiences after operation.\n\nMethods. After Caesarean section, 300 women were randomized before post-anaesthesia review. Selleck AP24534 Group P women were asked to rate their pain on a 0-10-point

verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS), where ’0′ was ‘no pain’ and ’10′ was ‘worst pain imaginable’. Group C women were asked to rate comfort on a 0-10-point VNRS, where ’0′ was ‘no comfort’ and ’10′ was ‘most comfortable’. All women were asked whether the Caesarean wound was bothersome, unpleasant, associated with tissue damage, and whether additional analgesia was desired.\n\nResults. The median (inter-quartile range) VNRS pain scores was higher than inverted comfort scores at rest, 2 (1, 4) vs 2 (0.5, 3), P=0.001, and movement, 6 (4, 7) vs 4 (3, 5), P<0.001. Group P women were more likely to be bothered by their Caesarean section, had greater VNRS ‘Bother’ scores, 4 (2, 6) vs 1 (0, 3), P<0.001, perceived postoperative sensations as ‘unpleasant’ [relative risk (RR) 3.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.20, 4.23], P<0.001, and related to tissue damage rather than healing and recovery (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.30, 3.18), P=0.001. Group P women were also more likely to request additional analgesia (RR 4.33, 95% CI 1.84, 10.22), P<0.001.\n\nConclusions.

Dihydrotestosterone Asking about pain and pain scores after Caesarean section adversely affects patient reports of their postoperative experiences.”
“While proof of concept that the immune system can be harnessed to attack cancer cells has been established, only a minority of patients are cured with immunotherapeutic regimens designed to enhance host autologous immunity. Recently acquired knowledge indicates that the low response rates associated with conventional cancer immunotherapy could be attributed, at least in part, to the processes of immunosenescence and replicative senescence, which consequently render the anti-tumor T cell clones of the aged host quantitatively insufficient and qualitatively impaired to elicit an effective anti-cancer response.

Based on the in silico analyses of these sequence alterations, as

Based on the in silico analyses of these sequence alterations, as well as their occurrence in cases and controls, none of them, however, were predicted to be pathogenic.\n\nConclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the mutation screening of the AATF gene in familial breast cancer cases. No evidence for the association with breast cancer

was observed.”
“PURPOSE: The elderly constitute an increasing portion of the world’s population. Our study assessed morbidity, mortality, and outcome in octogenarians who have undergone selleck inhibitor lower intestinal operations, and compared outcome between subsequent decades.\n\nMETHODS: A total of 138 octogenarians who underwent 157 operations were retrospectively studied (1995-2005). The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, blood loss, length of surgery, surgical intensive care unit admission, length of surgical intensive care

unit and hospital stay, and complications AL3818 were recorded. Emergency vs. elective and cancer vs. noncancer cases were compared. Results were compared for the years 1985 to 1994.\n\nRESULTS: Cancer comprised 63 percent of cases. The most common causes of mortality were sepsis and multiorgan failure. Differences (P < 0.05) were found for elective vs. emergent surgeries according to age, length of stay, complications, surgical intensive care unit admission, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, and mortality. Noncancer cases were more likely to be emergent, have a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, and a higher mortality rate. When emergency operations were excluded, there were no significant differences between cancer vs. noncancer cases. In a comparison of two decades (1985-1994 vs. 1995-2005), we found that the mortality rate in patients younger than aged 85 years decreased by more than 10 percent (P < 0.05). Patients older

than aged 85 years demonstrated no significant differences between decades. The strongest determinants of outcome are emergency status and the presence of comorbid conditions.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Elective surgery in the elderly is safe. Emergency surgery is accompanied selleck by significant morbidity and mortality.”
“We examined the trends in prescribing psychotropic drugs to children and adolescents within an inpatients adolescent psychiatric ward in Israel. Data of 414 subjects, ranging from 12- to 22-year-old, covering the years 1997, 2002 and 2007, was examined retrospectively. Analyzed variables included the number and type of drug prescriptions per patient at discharge, the subjects’ age at discharge and the number of diagnoses per patient at discharge. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to evaluate changes between the three calendar years, along the 10-year study period, while Pearson chi(2) test was performed for categorical variables.

(C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery Published by Else

(C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To determine whether increasing physiotherapy input from once to twice per day will result in earlier achievement of functional milestones (ie, independence in mobility and transfers) and decreased length of stay (LOS) in patients undergoing a primary total hip replacement.\n\nDesign: Randomized controlled trial.\n\nSetting: Metropolitan private hospital.\n\nParticipants: Patients (N=57) with

primary total hip replacement were randomly assigned to the twice daily (treatment, n=30) and once daily (control, n=27) groups. Patients who chose to attend hydrotherapy BKM120 order were excluded from the randomization process; however, they gave consent for outcome measures to be collected for comparison with the randomized groups.\n\nInterventions: The control group received usual care, and the treatment group received twice-daily physiotherapy from day I after surgery to discharge.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: The Iowa Level of Assistance at postoperative days 3 and 6 and LOS.\n\nResults:

This study demonstrates that patients who received twice-daily land-based physiotherapy after primary total hip replacement attained earlier achievement of functional milestones than patients that received once-daily physiotherapy. A statistically significant EGFR inhibitor (P=.041) but not clinically significant difference was evident in the Iowa Level of Assistance score at day 3. There was no difference between the groups in Iowa Level of Assistance measures on day 6 or on LOS.\n\nConclusions: Patients who received twice-daily physiotherapy showed a trend toward earlier achievement of functional milestones; however, this finding did

not translate to decreased LOS.”
“Insulin has been purified, humanized and then synthesized by microorganisms. It is mandatory to be able to use insulin, whose kinetics and reproducibility allow glycemia near to normal without increasing hypoglycemia. Use of insulin analogs allows a slight improvement in glycemic control and decrease hypoglycemia frequency. Flexibility DNA-PK inhibitor of treatment is also improved. “Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion” (CSII) using rapid analogs mimics physiologic insulin secretion. Major indications are: high HbA1c despite well-managed basal-bolus regimen, severe hypoglycemia, brittle diabetes or “dawn phenomenon”. Children, adolescents as well as pregnancy are also good indications. “Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion” major interest is the predominant absorption via the portal system. Kinetic is comparable to rapid analogs delivered subcutaneously. The dramatic reduction of severe hypoglycemic events has been related to good reproducibility of insulin absorption and restoration of glucagon response.

However, published reference values mostly refer to historical co

However, published reference values mostly refer to historical cohorts using motion-mode measurements and have not been adjusted for sex or age. The impact of body size was only vaguely addressed. The importance of such adjustments is illustrated by studies, which show that smaller individuals and

women are at risk of delayed treatment and impaired outcome when currently used reference values are applied. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of body selleck chemicals size, sex, and age on the normal heart size.\n\nMethods and Results We prospectively studied 622 individuals (52.7% women; 17-91 years; 143-200 cm; 32-240 kg) without cardiac disease by standard transthoracic echocardiography. Multivariable linear regression analyses of the impact of sex, age, height, and weight on cardiac chamber size were performed. By multivariable

regression analysis (n=500), all 4 variables independently influenced cardiac chamber size. The validity of cardiac dimensions predicted by the regression model was tested prospectively in a validation cohort (n=122). A calculator selleck compound is proposed that estimates cardiac dimensions on the basis of the regression analysis.\n\nConclusions Sex, height, weight, and age significantly affect the normal heart size. These parameters need to be considered when cutoff values indicating the need for treatment or even surgery are established.”
“An important criterion for the selection of a probiotic bacterial strain is its ability to adhere to the mucosal surface. Adhesion is usually mediated by proteins or other components located on the outer cell surface of the

bacterium. In the present study we characterized the adhesive properties of two classical intracellular enzymes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and enolase (ENO) isolated from the outer cell surface of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. None of the genes encoded signal peptides or cell surface selleck inhibitor anchoring motifs that could explain their extracellular location on the bacterial surface. The presence of the glycolytic enzymes on the outer surface was verified by western blotting using polyclonal antibodies raised against the specific enzymes. GAPDH and ENO showed a highly specific binding to plasminogen and fibronectin whereas GAPDH but not ENO showed weak binding to mucin. Furthermore, a pH dependent and specific binding of GAPDH and ENO to intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells at pH 5 but not at pH 7 was demonstrated. The results showed that these glycolytic enzymes could play a role in the adhesion of the probiotic bacterium L. plantarum 299v to the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Finally, a number of probiotic as well non-probiotic Lactobacillus strains were analyzed for the presence of GAPDH and ENO on the outer surface, but no correlation between the extracellular location of these enzymes and the probiotic status of the applied strains was demonstrated.

2% dose reduction per beam and a < 0 01%-0 2% dose reduction i

2% dose reduction per beam and a < 0.01%-0.2% dose reduction in total. These theoretical results were LY2835219 validated by measurements in a head phantom containing Onyx.\n\nConclusions. Dose reduction due to attenuation of the (60)Co beam by the AVM embolization material was negligible for both NBCA and EVOH because of the high-energy (60)Co beam. (DOI: 10.3171/2011.3.JNS10717)”
“Biotransformation of 3-substituted and 2,5-disubstituted phenols, using whole cells of P. putida

UV4, yielded cyclohexenone cis-diols as single enantiomers; their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR and ECD spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and stereochemical correlation involving a four step chemoenzymatic synthesis from the corresponding cis-dihydrodiol metabolites. An active site Blebbistatin mw model has been proposed, to account for the formation of enantiopure cyclohexenone cis-diols with opposite absolute configurations.”
“The 16p11.2 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by a wide range of phenotypic expressions and is frequently associated with developmental delay, symptoms from the autism spectrum, epilepsy, congenital anomalies, and obesity. These phenotypes are often related to a proximal 16p11.2 deletion of approximately 600 kb (BP4-BP5) that includes the SH2B1 gene that is reported to be causative for morbid obesity. This more centromeric deletion is most strongly related to autism spectrum

susceptibility and is functionally different from the more distal 16p12.2p11.2 region, which includes the so-called atypical 16p11.2 BP2-BP3 deletion (approximately 220 kb) presenting with developmental delay, behavioral problems and mild facial dysmorphisms. Here, an adult male with a long history of maladaptive behaviors is described who was referred for diagnostic assessment of his amotivational features. Extensive neuropsychological examination demonstrated rigid thinking, anxious beliefs, and ideas of reference in the presence of normal intelligence. Microarray analysis

demonstrated a de novo 970 kb 16p11.2 BP1-BP4 microdeletion that can be regarded as explanatory for his behavioral profile. It is concluded that microdeletion syndromes are not exclusively related to intellectual disabilities and genetic testing selleck screening library is of putative relevance for the understanding of neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological phenomena.”
“Utilization of multiple natural enemy species in weed biocontrol programs has often been advocated. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that multiple guilds of natural enemies, rather than individual species, would result in greater levels of damage to target host plants. This was investigated by evaluating the herbivorous insects Oxyops vitiosa (weevil) and Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (psyllid) and rust fungus Puccinia psidii separately and together when attacking cut-stump coppices of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca).

Results show that TEPs are secreted during algae cell growth,

Results show that TEPs are secreted during algae cell growth,

and that their presence is thus inevitable. Selleckchem SB203580 In the system with permeate recycle, substances such as counter ions and unassimilated nutrients get accumulated in the system. This was proven to limit the algae growth, together with the occurrence of bioflocculation due to an increasing broth pH. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PurposeThe use of tailored RF excitation pulses for prospective correction of non-linear motion-induced phase patterns is shown to enable diffusion-weighted (DW) fast spin echo (FSE) imaging in vivo. Echo-planar imaging (EPI) remains the most used sequence for DW imaging. Despite being highly sensitive to field inhomogeneities, EPI is robust to motion-induced phase shifts. FSE sequences are much less sensitive to field inhomogeneities, but require precise control of the transverse magnetization phase, which is hard to achieve with DW. Real time measurements and correction of phase ramps due to rigid-body motion had been proposed, but performance remained unsatisfactory because of non-linear phase patterns related

FDA approved Drug Library to pulsatile motion.\n\nMethodsReproducible non-linear phase components are calibrated using 2D-EPI navigators and tailored RF excitation pulses designed. Real time correction of rigid-body motion was not yet implemented.\n\nResultsPhase correction was confirmed with full signal DW-FSE images obtained on co-operative subjects. Full diffusion tensor acquisitions were Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor obtained and color-coded maps displaying principal fiber directionality calculated. Results were consistent with corresponding

EPI acquisitions except for absence of spatial distortions.\n\nConclusionCombining the proposed method with real time compensation of rigid-body motion has the potential to allow high quality, distortion free diffusion imaging throughout the brain. Magn Reson Med 71:691-701, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“In order to develop more sensitive imaging tools for clinical use and basic research of spinal decompression sickness (DCS), we used diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) validated by histology to assess DCS-related tissue injury in sheep spinal cords. DTI is based on the measurement of water diffusion indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD) to detect tissue microstructural abnormalities. In this study, we measured FA and MD in white and gray matter spinal cord regions in samples taken from sheep following hyperbaric exposure to 60-132 fsw and 0-180 minutes of oxygen pre-breathing treatment before rapid decompression. The main finding of the study was that decompression from >60 fsw resulted in reduced FA that was associated with cell death and disrupted tissue microstructure in spinal cord white matter tracts.