TCs establish close contacts with blood capillaries, nerve fibers

TCs establish close contacts with blood capillaries, nerve fibers and stem cells. We report here identification of TCs by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence in rat meninges and choroid plexus/subventricular zone, in the vicinity of putative stem cells. The presence of TCs in brain areas involved in adult neurogenesis

might indicate that they have a role in modulation TH-302 mouse of neural stem cell fate. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Slitrks are a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins belonging to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Six family members exist (Slitrk1-6) and all are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Slitrks have been implicated in mediating SHP099 basic

neuronal processes, ranging from neurite outgrowth and dendritic elaboration to neuronal survival. Recent studies in humans and genetic mouse models have led to the identification of Slitrks as candidate genes that might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although these system-level approaches have suggested that Slitrks play prominent roles in CNS development, key questions remain regarding the molecular mechanisms through which they mediate neuronal signaling and connectivity.”
“The aim of this study was to use proteomics-based approach to examine differences in protein expression in placenta derived from assisted reproductive technology (ART) and normal pregnancy. Using 2-DE we found that, compared with the control group, 12

spots in standard in vitro fertilization group and 18 spots in intracytoplasmic sperm injection group were identified as significantly differentially expressed proteins. Among them, six spots were differentially expressed in both standard IVF and ICSI groups with the same change tendency. Totally, 20 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, including proteins involved in the membrane traffic, metabolism, nucleic add processing, stress response and cytoskeleton. Notably, five proteins detected to be differentially expressed in both ARTgroups Metformin in vitro were identified as annexin A3, hnRNP C1/C2, alpha-SNAP, FTL and ATP5A. Some of the proteins were confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. Our study allowed for the initial identification of these proteins related to various functions in placentation with significantly altered abundance in ART groups. The present results reveal that abnormal protein profiles are involved in ART placenta and these differentially expressed proteins may be valuable for the evaluation of potential association between ART treatment and offspring outcome.”
“Previous studies found that the NMDA receptor-mediated signaling regulates thermal nociception, though the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear.

Docking suggested possible interactions at the 2′ and 6′ pore-lin

Docking suggested possible interactions at the 2′ and 6′ pore-lining residues, and mutagenesis of these residues supports this hypothesis for alpha-endosulfan. A selection of compounds that act at Cys-loop and other receptors also showed some efficacy PKC412 at blocking ELIC responses, but most were of low potency (IC50 > 100 mu M). Overall our data show that a number of compounds can inhibit ELIC, but it has limited pharmacological similarity to GLIC and to Cys-loop receptors. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Natural killer (NK) cells are central players

in the vertebrate immune system that rapidly eliminate malignantly transformed or infected cells. The natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 are important mediators of NK cell cytotoxicity, which trigger an immune response on recognition of cognate cellular and viral ligands. Tumour and

viral immune escape strategies targeting these receptor-ligand systems impair NK cell cytotoxicity and promote disease. Therefore, a molecular understanding of the function of the NCRs in immunosurveillance is instrumental to discovering novel access points to combat infections and cancer.”
“Bladder cancer (BLCa) is a severe urological cancer of both men and women that commonly recurs and once invasive, is difficult to treat. MINA-05 (CK Life Sciences Int’l, Hong Kong) is a derivative of complex botanical extracts, shown to reduce cellular proliferation of bladder and prostate carcinomas. We tested the effects of MINA-05 against human AZD8931 research buy BLCa cell sublines, Bay 11-7085 B8, B8-RSP-GCK, B8-RSP-LN and C3, from a transitional cell carcinoma, grade IV, to determine the molecular targets of treatment by observing the cellular protein profile. Cells were acclimatised for 48

h then treated for 72 h with concentrations of MINA-05 reflecting 1/2 IC(50), IC(50) and 2 x IC(50) (n = 3) or with vehicle, (0.5% DMSO). Dose-dependant changes in protein abundance were detected and characterised using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and MS. We identified 10 proteins that underwent changes in abundance, pI and/or molecular mass in response to treatment. MINA-05 was shown to influence proteins across numerous functional classes including cytoskeletal proteins, energy metabolism proteins, protein degradation proteins and tumour suppressors, suggesting a global impact on these cell lines. This study implies that the ability of MINA-05 to retard cellular proliferation is attributed to its ability to alter cell cycling, metabolism, protein degradation and the cancer cell environment.”
“Both laboratory and epidemiological studies published over the past two decades have identified the risk of excess hearing loss when specific chemical contaminants are present along with noise.

In synaptosomes, MDMA decreased 5-HT uptake by about 40% This de

In synaptosomes, MDMA decreased 5-HT uptake by about 40%. This decrease was prevented by MEM and by MLA but enhanced by PNU 282987. A similar pattern was observed when we measured the dopamine transport inhibited by METH. The inhibition of both transporters by amphetamine derivatives seems to

be regulated by the calcium incorporation after APR-246 activation of alpha-7 nAChR. MDMA competitively displaces [H-3]MLA from rat brain membranes. MEM and METH also displace [H-3]MLA with non-competitive displacement profiles that fit a two-site model. We conclude that MEM prevents MDMA and METH effects in rodents. MEM may offer neuroprotection against neurotoxicity induced by MDMA and METH by preventing the deleterious effects of these amphetamine derivatives on their respective transporters. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) BV/ODV-c42 (orf101; c42), which encodes a 41.5-kDa viral nucleocapsid protein with a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif at the C terminus, is a highly conserved gene among members of the Baculoviridae

family. C42 is demonstrated to be essential for AcMNPV propagation and can bind to nucleocapsid mTOR inhibitor protein P78/83, a viral activator for the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex to initiate nuclear actin polymerization, which is essential for viral nucleocapsid morphogenesis during AcMNPV infection. Here, we report the identification of

a novel pathway through which c42 functions in nucleocapsid assembly. Cotransfection of Sf9 cells with c42 and p78/83 plasmids demonstrated that C42 was capable of recruiting P78/83 to the nuclei of uninfected cells and that the NLS motif of C42 was essential for this process. To validate this nuclear relocation mode in bacmid-transfected cells, a c42-disrupted bacmid (vAc(c42ko-gfp)) and rescued bacmids with wild-type c42 (vAcc42(res-gfp)) or with NLS coding sequencemutated c42 (vAcc42(nls-gfp)) were prepared. By immuno-staining, P78/83 was found to be localized in the cytoplasm of either vAc(c421ko-gfp) – or vAc(c42nls-gfp)-transfected cells, whereas P78/83 was relocated to the nuclei of VAC(c42res-gfP)-transfected why cells. Furthermore, F-actin-specific staining confirmed that there was no actin polymerization activity in the nuclei of either vAc(c42ko-gfp) – or vAv(c42nls-gfP)-transfected cells, which might be attributed to the absence of nuclear P78/83, an activator of the ARP2/3 complex to initiate nuclear actin polymerization. We therefore hypothesize a mode of action where C42 binds to P78/83 in the cytoplasm to form a protein complex and cotransports to the nucleus under the direction of the NLS motif in C42 during AcMNPV infection.”
“Morphine treatment can paradoxically increase nociception (i.e. hyperalgesia).

Microfabrication techniques are facilitating the creation of micr

Microfabrication techniques are facilitating the creation of microenvironments tailored to neuronal structures and subdomains with unprecedented access and control. The design, fabrication, and properties of microfluidic devices offer significant advantages for addressing unresolved issues of neuronal development. These high-resolution approaches are poised to contribute new insights into mechanisms for restoring neuronal function and connectivity compromised by injury, stress, and neurodegeneration.”
“Lys67 is essential for the hydrolysis reaction mediated by class C beta-lactamases. Its exact catalytic role lies at the center of several different

proposed reaction mechanisms, particularly ATM inhibitor for the deacylation step, and has been intensely debated. Whereas a conjugate base hypothesis postulates that a neutral Lys67 and Tyr150 act together to deprotonate the deacylating water, previous experiments on the K67R mutants of class C beta-lactamases suggested that the role of Lys67 in deacylation is mainly electrostatic, with only a 2- to 3-fold decrease in the rate of the mutant vs the wild

type enzyme. Using the Class C beta-lactamase AmpC, we have reinvestigated the activity of this K67R selleckchem mutant enzyme, using biochemical and structural studies. Both the rates of acylation and deacylation were affected in the AmpC K67R mutant, with a 61-fold decrease in k(cat), the deacylation rate. We have determined the structure of the K67R mutant by X-ray crystallography both in apo and transition state-analog complexed forms, and observed only minimal conformational changes in the catalytic residues relative to the wild type. These results suggest that the arginine side chain is unable to play the same catalytic role as Lys67 in either the acylation or deacylation reactions catalyzed by AmpC. Therefore, PAK5 the activity of this mutant can not be used to discredit the conjugate base hypothesis as previously concluded, although the reaction catalyzed by the K67R mutant itself likely proceeds by an alternative mechanism. Indeed, a manifold

of mechanisms may contribute to hydrolysis in class C beta-lactamases, depending on the enzyme (wt or mutant) and the substrate, explaining why different mutants and substrates seem to support different pathways. For the WT enzyme itself, the conjugate base mechanism may be well favored.”
“Background: P2X(7) receptors intervene with lymphocyte activation and are responsible for multiple processes, including calcium influx. Here, we studied the participation of P2X(7) receptors in disturbed intracellular calcium homeostasis regulation in early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: The study involved 20 healthy volunteers and 20 CKD stage 2-3 patients. The free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) was measured using fluorimetry. The P2X(7) pore function was evaluated by the fluorescent dye ethidium bromide.

3%) of the remaining 90 cases There were no recurrences

3%) of the remaining 90 cases. There were no recurrences.

CONCLUSION: The study shows that dual-portal endoscopic release of the transverse ligament in carpal tunnel syndrome is a valuable technique that produces very good long-term results and high patient satisfaction and does not result in a significant recurrence rate.”
“The standard diagnosis of

rotavirus gastroenteritis is based on the demonstration of rotavirus antigen Fosbretabulin datasheet in stools using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In this study, a one-step quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR) was used for sensitive detection of rotavirus in diarrheal stools. The primers and TaqMan probe for the Q-PCR were selected from a highly conserved region of the non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) of rotavirus. After validation, the test was applied to study rotavirus EIA positive (N = 25) CP-690550 order and EIA negative (N = 143) stool specimens from cases of acute gastroenteritis

of all degrees of severity in a prospective follow-up cohort of infants from 2 months to 2 years of age. Q-PCR detected all 25 EIA positive rotavirus antigens and seven additional cases that were rotavirus EIA negative, i.e. 28% more rotavirus positive cases than identified by EIA. It is concluded that Q-PCR using primers targeted at NSP3 is a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosing acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize the phenotypic and functional differences of endothelial cells derived from cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM), as compared with endothelial cells derived from a normal brain.

METHODS: Isolated AVM brain endothelial cells and control brain endothelial cells were evaluated immunohistochemically for expression of the endothelial cell markers von Willebrand factor and CD31, as well as angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor A,

interleukin-8, and endothelin-1. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry techniques. Functional assays evaluated cell proliferation, cytokine production, tubule formation, and cell migration ID-8 using the modified Boyden chamber technique.

RESULTS: Endothelial cells derived from AVMs expressed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A and significantly overexpressed the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (P < 0.05), as compared with control endothelial cells. In addition, comparison to control brain endothelial cells demonstrated that AVM brain endothelial cells proliferated faster, migrated more quickly, and produced aberrant tubule-like structures.

CONCLUSION: Endothelial cells derived from cerebral AVMs are highly activated cells overexpressing proangiogenic growth factors and exhibiting abnormal functions consistent with highly activated endothelial cells.”
“A simple, sensitive and specific method using a cDNA macroarray to detect multiple viruses was devised.

It is found that the active site geometry of the A-TIM complexes

It is found that the active site geometry of the A-TIM complexes is less compact and more solvent exposed,

as in wild-type TIM. This correlates with the observation that the catalytic efficiency of A-TIM for interconverting the TIM substrates is too low to be detected. It is also HKI-272 supplier shown that the A-TIM active site can bind compounds which do not bind to wild-type TIM and which are completely different from the normal TIM substrate, like a citrate molecule. The binding of this citrate molecule is stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions with the new binding groove.”
“Understanding the basic mechanisms underlying chromatin dynamics during DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is of fundamental importance. Beyond DNA compaction, chromatin organization represents a means to regulate genome

function. Thus, the inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence, along Sorafenib datasheet with its organization into chromatin, is central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA replication in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility to the compact structures and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome dynamics involving assembly pathways and chromatin maturation mechanisms that restore chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication. In this review, we describe our current knowledge concerning how these pathways operate at the nucleosomal level and highlight the key players, such as histone chaperones, chromatin remodelers or modifiers, involved in the process of chromatin duplication. Major advances have been made recently concerning de novo, nucleosome assembly and our understanding of its coordination with recycling of parental histones is progressing. Insights into the transmission of chromatin-based information during replication have important implications in the field of epigenetics to fully comprehend how the epigenetic landscape might, or at times might not, be stably maintained in the face of dramatic changes in chromatin structure.”
“Pyrethroids, widely used insecticides

with low acute toxicity in mammals, affect sodium channels in neurons. In Parvulin a primary culture of rat cortical neurons, deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, markedly enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exon IV-IX (Bdnf eIV-IX) mRNA. In this study, we found that DM has a neurotrophic effect on cultured neurons and investigated the mechanisms responsible for it. One mu M DM increased cell survival, neurite complexity and length. Neurite complexity and length were reduced not only by a blockade of cellular excitation with GABA or Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels with nicardipine, but also by a blockade of TrkB, a specific receptor for BDNF, with TrkB/Fc. These data indicate DM has neurotrophic actions.

p twice daily for 15 days) on PKC gamma and mitogen-activated pr

p. twice daily for 15 days) on PKC gamma and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) expression has been evaluated in CCI (chronic constriction injury) rats. The sciatic nerve and the lumbar tract of the spinal cord were processed to evaluate the levels of the phosphorylated form of PKC gamma, ERK 1,2, SAP/JNK, p-38 and c-Jun; furthermore, the mRNA expression of the early genes c-Jun and c-Fos has been investigated. Fifteen days after injury, selleck compound the analysis in the sciatic nerves highlighted a bilateral increase

of the activated forms of PKC gamma, ERK 1,2 and SAP/JNK, whereas c-Jun showed an increase only ipsilaterally. ALCAR completely prevented mechanical hyperalgesia and provoked in the nerve a c-Jun increment only. In the lumbar tract of the spinal cord, higher levels of activated PKC gamma, ERK 1,2, p38, SAP/JNK and c-Jun proteins were detected in the ipsilateral Selleckchem Alvocidib side in respect of sham. ALCAR was able to stimulate this expression profile. At the transcriptional level c-Jun mRNA was increased in the ipsilateral side of spinal cord of CCI saline-treated

rats, whereas c-Fos mRNA was unchanged. ALCAR had a stimulatory effect on both these early genes. These findings may represent a different approach in the study of the complex balance between pain and neuroregeneration and could constitute the basis for developing new disease modifying agents in the treatment of neuropathic pain. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Learning by imitation is essential for transmitting many aspects of human culture, including speech, language, art, and music. How the human brain enables

imitation remains a mystery, but the underlying neural mechanisms must harness sensory feedback to adaptively modify performance in reference to the object of imitation. Although examples of imitative learning in nonhuman animals are relatively rare, juvenile songbirds learn to sing by copying the song MG 132 of an adult tutor. The delineation of neural circuits for birdsong raises the promise that this complex form of vocal learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood in terms of underlying neural mechanisms. This promise is now being more fully realized, with recent experimental advances leading to better understanding of the central motor codes for song and the central mechanisms by which auditory experience modifies song motor commands to enable vocal learning.”
“Several studies have reported the neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li) suggesting its potential in the treatment of neurological disorders, among of them amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although the cause of motoneuron (MN) death in ALS remains unknown, there is evidence that glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity plays an important role.

We have

previously reported that

We have

previously reported that TPX-0005 solubility dmso cutaneous human papillomavirus type 38 (HPV38) displays transforming properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. However, the involvement of NF-kappa B signaling in HPV38-induced cell growth transformation remains to be determined. In this study, we showed that HPV38 E6 and E7 activate NF-kappa B and that inhibition of the pathway with the I kappa B alpha superrepressor sensitizes HPV38E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)- and UVB radiation-mediated apoptosis. Accordingly, inhibition of NF-kappa B signaling resulted in the downregulation of NF-kappa B-regulated antiapoptotic genes, including cIAP1, cIAP2, and xIAP genes. These findings demonstrate a critical role of NF-kappa B activity in the survival of HPV38E6E7-immortalized human keratinocytes exposed to cytokine or UV radiation. Our data provide additional evidence for cooperation between beta HPV infection and UV

irradiation in skin carcinogenesis.”
“Objective: Even though the association between alexithymia and somatization seems plausible according to several studies with selected populations, it has not been verified in carefully controlled and nationally representative population studies. We conducted such a study to find out whether alexithymia is associated with somatization at population find more level. Methods: This study was a part of the Finnish Health 2000 Study. The nationally representative sample comprised 5129 subjects aged 30 to 97 years. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and somatic symptom reporting with the 12-item somatization scale derived from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Sociodemographic and health-related variables, including depressive and anxiety disorders, and

physician verified somatic diagnoses, were treated as confounders in multivariate analyses. Results: Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. The TAS-20 factor scale Gefitinib ic50 “”Difficulties Identifying Feelings”" was the strongest common denominator between alexithymia and somatization. Conclusions: This was the first time the independent association between alexithymia and somatization was established in a large, nationally representative nonclinical sample of both young and old adults with and without mental disorders and somatic diseases.”
“Enhanced acute tolerance predicts alcohol abuse. We describe work on the role of the calcium- and voltage-gated BK channel in alcohol tolerance, highlighting the lipid environment, BK protein isoform selection and auxiliary BK channel proteins. We show how ethanol, which had the reputation of a nonspecific membrane perturbant, is now being examined at realistic concentrations with cutting-edge techniques, providing novel molecular targets for therapeutic approaches to alcoholism.

In the other brain structures, eNOS mRNA expression was similar b

In the other brain structures, eNOS mRNA expression was similar but with lowest mRNA concentration in the pituitary gland and the highest concentration in cortex. The same pattern of expression was also observed with the eNOS protein. In conclusion, we found both

nNOS and eNOS located to areas relevant to migraine supporting the involvement of NO in migraine mechanisms. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All find more rights reserved.”
“Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense RNA viruses. DENV RNA replication requires cyclization of the viral genome mediated by two pairs of complementary sequences in the 5′ and 3′ ends, designated 5′ and 3′ cyclization sequences (5′-3′ CS) and the 5′ and 3′ upstream of AUG region (5′-3′ UAR). Here, we demonstrate that another stretch of six nucleotides in the 5′ end is involved in DENV replication and possibly genome cyclization. This new sequence is located downstream of the AUG, designated the 5′ downstream AUG region (5′ DAR); the motif predicted to be complementary in the 3′ end is termed the 3′ DAR. In addition to the UAR, CS

and DAR motifs, two other RNA elements are located at the 5′ end of the viral RNA: the 5′ stem-loop A (5′ SLA) interacts with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and promotes RNA synthesis, CB-839 cell line and a stem-loop in the coding region named cHP is involved in translation start site selection as well as RNA replication. We analyzed the interplay of these 5′ RNA elements in relation to RNA replication, and our data indicate that two separate functional units are formed; one consists of the SLA, and the other includes the UAR, DAR, cHP, and CS elements. The SLA must be located at the 5′ end of the genome, whereas the position of the second unit is more flexible. We also show that the UAR, DAR, cHP, and CS must act in concert and therefore likely function together to form the tertiary RNA structure of the circularized DENV genome.”

changes in brain function, including learning and memory, have been reported during pregnancy but the molecular mechanisms involved in these changes are unknown. Due to the fundamental role of glial cells in brain activity, we analyzed the content of glial Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, preoptic area, hypothalamus and cerebellum of the rat on days 2, 14, 18, and 21 of pregnancy and on day 2 of lactation by Western blot. A differential expression pattern of GFAP was found in the brain during pregnancy and the beginning of lactation. GFAP content was increased in the hippocampus throughout pregnancy, whereas a decrease was observed in cerebellum. GFAP content was increased in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus on days 14 and 18, respectively, with a decrease in the following days of pregnancy in both regions.

“Purpose: The development of micturition in mice has been

“Purpose: The development of micturition in mice has been poorly studied because of the minute urine volume voided per micturition. We characterized development of the micturition pattern in young mice.

Materials and Methods: Micturition in young and adult C57BL/6

strain mice, including 5 males and 4 females at age 3 weeks immediately after weaning, and 5 of each gender at ages 9 to 10 weeks, respectively, was recorded by the automated voided stain on paper method. Micturition data were obtained under 12-hour light/dark cycles in young mice for 16 days and in adult mice for 4 days. Diurnal variations were AZD3965 assessed during 8 hours until the first void after lights off and those until lights on. The 24-hour rhythmicity of urinary frequency was calculated for 4-day data at the beginning and at the end on young mice, and for 4-day data on adult mice using a chi-square periodogram

4-Hydroxytamoxifen order and relative power spectral density.

Results: Mean frequency was 20 to 30 times per day. Total daily urine volume and mean daily urine volume voided per micturition increased with age. The diurnal rhythm of frequency matured to adult levels with development, which was primarily achieved by maturation of the diurnal variation of urine volume in male mice, followed by female mice. Diurnal variation of urine volume voided per micturition was indistinct at the initial stage and gradually matured toward adult levels.

Conclusions: The automated for voided stain on paper method was used to record micturition development in young mice. This generated data corresponding to frequency-volume charts in humans. Our findings could lead to the establishment of a mouse model of developmental micturition disorders, such as nocturnal enuresis.”
“Chlamydiae belong to the most successful intracellular bacterial pathogens. They display a complex developmental cycle and an extremely broad host spectrum ranging from vertebrates to protozoa. The family Chlamydiaceae comprises exclusively well-known pathogens of humans and animals, whereas the members of its sister group,

the Parachlamydiaceae, naturally occur as symbionts of free-living amoebae. Comparative analysis of these two groups provides valuable insights into chlamydial evolution and mechanisms for microbe-host interaction. Based on the complete genome sequence of the Acanthamoeba spp. symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25, we performed the first detailed proteome analysis of the infectious stage of a symbiotic chlamydia. A 2-D reference proteome map was established and the analysis was extensively complemented by shotgun proteomics. In total, 472 proteins were identified, which represent 23.2% of all encoded proteins. These cover a wide range of functional categories, including typical house-keeping proteins, but also putative virulence-associated proteins.