5%, and giving a final noninferiority margin of 11% A sample siz

5%, and giving a final noninferiority margin of 11%. A sample size of 704 patients, including 352 patients in each treatment group, was considered sufficient for showing noninferiority of TVR twice-daily dosing. Assuming an expected SVR12 rate of 72% in each group and a noninferiority margin of –11%, this sample size provided 90% power to reject the inferiority hypothesis. Secondary efficacy variables included the proportion of patients who achieved RVR, achieved SVR at week 24, experienced a relapse, and experienced on-treatment virological failure. For virological responses, data were analyzed without imputation (“observed” analyses) and using a noncompleter equals failure (NC = F) imputation.

Intermittent missing values were imputed as a “response” if the immediate preceding and following visits showed a response and as “no response” otherwise. If any study drug was prematurely discontinued buy H 89 due to virological failure, “no response” was imputed. If any study drug was prematurely discontinued for another reason (ie, not related to virological failure), missing data were marked as “missing for another reason.” However, missing HCV RNA assessments at the SVR12 visit were not imputed and were considered treatment failures (no SVR). Additional sensitivity analyses were also performed to compare virological response rates (Supplementary

Methods). Descriptive statistics of treatment adherence and the number of patients in each adherence category were reported for TVR Alectinib in vitro dosing frequency, timing of intake,

and intake based on the e-diary. This diary captured the amount and timing of TVR dosing relative to the prescribed regimen. Additionally, adherence to dosing of TVR and DNA ligase PEG-IFN/RBV was measured by dispensed versus returned medications (pill count). Adherence was expressed as the percentage of prescribed doses during the treatment period and categorized by defined thresholds. The e-diary analysis was performed using the ITT population, with missing entries considered 0% adherent. Observed data analyses were also performed. The 95% CIs stated in the report were part of the prespecified statistical analysis and provided an informal comparison within the framework of noninferiority. P values stated in the report for the secondary efficacy variables and subgroup analyses were from post hoc statistical testing. HCV NS3/4A population sequencing was performed on plasma samples at baseline and in the case of virological failure or relapse. The frequency of TVR-resistant variants is presented descriptively. Individual empirical Bayesian estimates of TVR PK parameters were determined using a population PK modeling approach. Blood samples (sparse sampling) were taken at sites with the capabilities for PK sampling at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 to determine concentrations of TVR, PEG-IFN, and RBV for adherence assessments as well as for PK evaluations.

1999) In addition, cysts of toxic species such as Alexandrium

1999). In addition, cysts of toxic species such as Alexandrium MS-275 research buy spp. and Gymnodinium catenatum may be more toxic than their motile vegetative cells ( Dale, 1978 and Oshima et al., 1992) and may therefore represent a source of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins ( Schwinghamer et al. 1994). Although studies of dinocyst distributions in marine surface sediments are increasing worldwide, there is no published literature on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages

in Saudi coastal areas of the Red Sea. However, incidents of algal blooms and dinoflagellate red tides did occur along Saudi coasts of the Red Sea during the period 2004–2006 (Mohamed & Messad 2007). Although these blooms have since disappeared from this area, there is a possibility of their recurrence in the original bloom area and elsewhere. Therefore, the collection and counting of resting cysts during non-bloom periods offer a potential tool for the prediction of future toxic blooms (Hallegraeff and Bolch, 1992, Anderson, 1997 and Persson et al., 2000). Hence, the

objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of dinoflagellate cysts in surface sediments collected from previously infected areas with algal blooms on south-western Saudi coasts of the Red Sea. The germination ability of these cysts was also evaluated. The study area was located in the Red Sea off the south-western coast of Saudi Arabia, extending from 19.65° to 19.80°N (Figure 1). The coastal region of this area is subject to drainage from surrounding

rainwater pools and is affected by aquaculture wastewater discharges from a nearby shrimp farm. The surface sediments I BET 762 collected from the study area were characterized as fine sand and mud (Table 1). Surface sediments were collected Reverse transcriptase from 6 sites throughout the study area during March 2010. The sites are ca 20 km distant from each other. Three sediment samples were collected from different spots (located about 10 m away from one another) at each site with a flat spade and the subsamples put into plastic jars. Three replicate subsamples were taken from the top 5 cm using a 1.5-cm-diameter syringe with a cut-off top. The three replicates were pooled and placed into containers that were then tightly sealed to prevent germination. All the samples were stored in the dark at 4°C until processing. Aliquots of the samples were oven-dried at 105°C for 6 h to determine sediment dry weight. The sediments were analysed for grain size following Folk & Ward (1957), and their organic carbon content was determined according to el Wakeel & Riley (1957). The sediment samples from each site were homogenized with a glass rod, and subsamples of the sediment were extracted with a spoon and sieved through 100 μm and 25 μm Retsch stainless steel sieves using filtered seawater. The sediments remaining on the 25 μm sieve were collected in a 50 ml glass container.

, 2009 and O’Doherty et al , 2005) Motor performance of the TsC1

, 2009 and O’Doherty et al., 2005). Motor performance of the TsC1je mouse model of DS, which shows a smaller decrease

in GC density and contains a smaller number of triplicated genes, has not been described (Moldrich et al., 2007). The cerebellum is also important for the production of fluent speech (Ackermann, 2008) and people with DS have difficulty in producing clear and ordered speech (Barnes et al., 2006) but this is one characteristic that cannot be assessed in mouse models of DS. In addition to a Selleck AZD9291 reduced density of GCs in the Ts65Dn cerebellum, there is narrowing of the molecular layer, loss of PCs, and structural abnormalities in the axons of surviving PCs (Baxter et al., 2000 and Necchi et al., 2008), but the electrical properties of these PCs have not been investigated. A previous study addressed the possibility that excitatory synaptic transmission on to PCs is altered inTc1 mice (Galante et al., 2009). It found no changes in the probability of transmitter release or EPSC waveform at synapses on PCs formed by afferent climbing fibers.

It also found no changes in basal probability of glutamate release or in long-term depression of synaptic transmission Selleckchem Everolimus at synapses between GC axons (parallel fibers) and PCs, although a slowing of EPSCs was reported. The slowing of the EPSC kinetics was not investigated in detail and the EPSC amplitudes were not compared, but it is consistent with the idea that changes in the properties of GCs, as we have observed, may alter signaling at downstream parallel fiber–PC synapses. In summary, this Sitaxentan study finds that the decrease in the number of cerebellar GCs in the Ts65Dn model of DS is accompanied by modification of the electrical properties of the GCs. Further

studies are needed to determine if and how this affects processing of sensorimotor information by the cerebellum in DS. Mice were generated by crossing female B6EiC3Sn a/A-Ts(1716)65Dn (Ts65Dn) mice, carrying a partial trisomy of chromosome 16 (Reeves et al., 1995), with C57BL/6JEi × C3H/HeSnJ (B6EiC3Sn) F1 males, at the University of Bristol. Parental generations of all three mice strains were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Maine, USA). To distinguish trisomic Ts65Dn from euploid littermate animals (wild-type), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of tail-tip genomic DNA (Truett et al., 2000) was used to measure expression of the App gene (present in three copies in Ts65Dn and two copies in wild-type animals) relative to expression of the Apob gene (present in two copies in both Ts65Dn and wild-type animals; The Jackson Laboratory Protocols) ( Liu et al., 2003).

melanosticus, R schneideri, R margaritifer, R hypocondrialis,

melanosticus, R. schneideri, R. margaritifer, R. hypocondrialis, R. major, R. margaritifera, R. crucifer and R. jimi), bufadienolides extracted from the Chinese traditional drug Ch’an Su and from plants (Urginea maritima, U. aphylla, U. maritima and U. hesperia), displaying activity against tumor lines, such as colon (26-L5, CT26.WT), leukemia (K562, U937, ML1), melanoma (MDA/MB-435, B16/F10, SKMEL-28), breast (MCF-7, MDA/MB-231), prostate (DU-145, PC-3, LNCaP), nervous system (Hs683, U373) and primary liver carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5) ( Zhang et al., 1992, Nogawa et al., 2001, Ogasawara et al., 2001, Kamano et al., 2002, Yeh et al., 2003, Cunha-Filho et al., 2010, Sciani et al., 2012 and Banuls et al.,

2013). Hellebregenin, for example, is highly cytotoxic to HL-60 cells without causing DNA damage but inducing morphological changes characteristic selleck products of cell death by apoptosis ( Cunha-Filho et al., 2010). Previous studies have reported the

cytotoxicity of the compounds identified in R. marina (1, 2, 3, and 4) and R. guttatus (2) venoms. Bufalin (3) showed the most potent cytotoxic activity, followed by telocinobufagin (1), resibufogenin (4), and marinobufagin (2) against the following cancer cell lines: leukemia (HL-60), colon (HCT-116), glioblastoma (SF-295), ovarian (OVCAR-8), melanoma (MDA-MB435), human gastric selleck chemical (BGC-823), hepatoma (Bel-7402), cervical carcinoma (HeLa), and primary liver carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5) ( Kamano et al., 1998, Ye et al., 2006 and Cunha-Filho et al., 2010). The higher cytotoxic activity of venom extracts from R. marina in comparison with R. guttatus can be attributed to the presence of three other bufadienolides (1, 3, and 4) as well as marinobufagin (2), a bufadienolide identified only in R. guttatus venom. The above findings suggest synergistic effects due to the presence of different active principles contributing to the same activity ( Wattenberg, 1985). Thus, it is proposed that compounds present in the extracts act together to kill neoplastic cells. Regarding chemotherapeutic

potential, it is important to determine if the antineoplastic substance shows harmful effects on normal cells (Anazetti Megestrol Acetate et al., 2003 and Santos et al., 2010). Accordingly, primary cultures of PBMC were prepared to assess this injurious potential of the extracts. Surprisingly, most of them were not cytotoxic to PBMC as seen as with transformed cells, where the extract RMF-1 was up to 80-fold more selective against leukemia cells when compared to dividing leukocytes, a very desired advantage in new anticancer leads to overcome adverse effects due to a narrow therapeutic window, multiple drug resistance and morphological and physiological similarities between transformed and normal cells. Meanwhile, Dox showed a selectivity coefficient of 45 determined by IC50 in PBMC/IC50 in HL-60. R.

After extrusion the samples were collected, cooled to room temper

After extrusion the samples were collected, cooled to room temperature under natural convection conditions. The samples were then milled to a 0.149 mm granule size. They were labeled as extruded amaranth flours

and kept at 10 °C until analysis. Untreated flours were stored in the same manner as the extruded samples. In order to assess possible effects of flour particle size on the analysis, granule sizes were checked using a Malvern Mastersizer S-MAN 5005 (Malvern Instruments Ltda, Malvern, UK). (data not shown). The chemical composition of the flours including the moisture, fat, protein and ash content, were determined by the method described in AOAC (1997). The dietary fiber was analyzed using the enzymatic and gravimetric method according to Prosky, Asp, Schwiser, Devries, and Furnas (1988); starch was determined according to the this website method of Rickard and Behn (1987). Starch was quantified

by enzymatic hydrolysis as described by Rickard and Behn (1987). Amylose content was determined following the method ISO 6647 (International Organization for Standardization, 1987). Amylopectin content was equal to the value obtained by subtraction of amylose from total starch. The color of the samples was determined in triplicate using the equipment ColorQuest XE (Hunter Lab, ColorQuest, USA). The CIE L∗a∗b∗ system was employed. This system determines the L∗, a∗ and b∗ values, where L∗ represents lightness with 0 for black and 100 for white;

a∗ represents the opposition between green and ROCK inhibitor red colors ranging from positive (green) to negative (red) values; and b∗ is the yellow/blue opposition also ranging from positive (yellow) to negative (blues) values. In the CIE L∗a∗b∗ color space a∗ and b∗ values exhibit minima and maxima values that depend on L∗ value. To determine the water absorption Adenosine (WAI) and the water solubility indexes (WSI), the methodology proposed by Anderson, Conway, and Griffin (1969) was followed. Pasting properties of amaranth flours were determined using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA-4, Newport Scientific, Warriewood, Australia) according to Ragaee and Abdel-Aal (2006). The pasting temperature (PT), peak viscosity (PV, the maximum hot paste viscosity), holding strength or trough viscosity (the trough at the minimum hot paste viscosity), final viscosity (FV, the viscosity at the end of test after cooling to 50 °C and holding at this temperature), breakdown (BD, peak viscosity − holding strength or trough viscosity) and setback (SB, final viscosity − holding strength) were determined with Thermocline for Windows software (Version 2.0). The viscosities are presented in Rapid Visco Units (RVU). Thermal properties were analyzed using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC822, Mettler Toledo, Schwerzenbach, Switzerland) according to González, Carrara, Tosi, Añón, and Pilosof (2007) with some modifications. Amaranth flour (13.0 ± 0.

Drawbacks of in vitro models are that they have been developed ma

Drawbacks of in vitro models are that they have been developed mainly for screening purposes selleck products by the pharmaceutical industry and are not validated for certain categories of industrial chemicals. Therefore, training with the latter compounds and taking into account uncertainty is needed. This methodology allows for the determination of human pharmacokinetics of test compounds administered at doses much lower than the

expected pharmacologically effective or toxic levels (FDA, 2008). Microdosing has been used as part of human drug clinical testing to evaluate drug ADME (Coecke et al., 2005b) but has not been widely accepted for testing chemicals. This is not used universally and is done on a case-by-case basis. This technology, once installed is cost-effective to study new chemical entities and has the advantage of requiring only very low doses of radiolabelled compounds. One limitation to this technology is that the dose has to be lower than 100 μg, thus if this is significantly different from the therapeutic dose and the pharmacokinetics profile is different, then the low dose pharmacokinetics data may have decreased relevance compared to the toxic/effective concentration. Another disadvantage of this method

is that humans are purposely FG 4592 exposed to radiation for biomedical research and its use should therefore be justified (as recommended by the International Commission of Radiation Protection in Publication 62 (ICRP, 1991)). There are radiation dose constraints for volunteers under different conditions and these are discussed in the recommendations from the ICRP

(ICRP, 2007). In order to refine and improve existing in vivo study types, as well as reduce the number of animals used, for chemical testing, it was recommended to increase information gained from one study by incorporating Lck additional endpoints into the study, e.g. using peripheral blood for metabolomics and the micronucleus (MN) test. It is noted that inclusion of more endpoints, e.g. kinetics, may be difficult to implement for small animals, e.g. mice. In addition, inclusion of positive controls for each endpoint may mean extra animals are needed, although, for some endpoints which have sufficient historical data, such as the in vivo MN test, additional positive controls are not an absolute requirement. The different industry sectors have generated a vast amount of data using similar models; however, the sharing of this data across sectors has not been as fast flowing. The workshop recommended the sharing of in vivo data, coordination and information exchange between research projects and sectors. Companies should be encouraged to share in-house additional data from long-term studies so that in vivo studies are not unnecessarily duplicated and in silico/in vitro methods can be validated.

The saltern lies about 500 m from the Mediterranean Sea in the no

The saltern lies about 500 m from the Mediterranean Sea in the north. It consists of a series of shallow ponds with depths of 0.5–1.5 m and surface areas varying from 70 to a few hundred ha (Figure 1). Seawater is pumped from the Suez Canal through an intake to a large pond (P1) where solar energy and wind combine and evaporation begins. The water volume is reduced and salinity levels gradually build up through consecutive evaporation ponds (P2–P3) and the production pond (P4). As the salinity increases, low-soluble salts precipitate

see more as carbonates and sulphates. The saturated brine then passes through smaller ponds (P5, crystallizer ponds) where evaporation continues (Figure 2). Once the volume has been reduced to about 10% of the original, any furtherk concentration results in the deposition of sodium chloride. Five ponds with different salinities were sampled in summer (June 2010).

Water samples were collected 20 cm below the surface using a 2-L Van Dorn bottle. Water temperature, transparency and pH were measured immediately in situ after sampling using a mercury PR-171 glass thermometer graduated in 0.1 °C, a Secchi disc and a portable pH meter (Model HI 9124) respectively. Salinity was estimated as total dissolved salts (TDS) according to APHA (1995). A well-mixed sample was passed through a glass fibre filter, after which the filtrate was evaporated to dryness in a weighed

dish, then dried to constant weight at 180 °C. The increase in dish weight represents the salt content [g l− 1]. The total weight of major ions generally Vasopressin Receptor constitutes over 99% of the total salinity (Wetzel & Likens 2000). Nitrates and phosphates were determined in filtered seawater using GF/C filters according to the methods described by Parsons et al. (1984). For phytoplankton examination, water samples were preserved immediately using Lugol’s iodine and concentrated by decanting. The algal count was conducted under an inverted microscope using Utermöhl’s method (Utermöhl 1958) and identified to genus or species level by consulting the works of Prescott (1951), Hendey (1964), Dodge (1982) and Komárek & Anagnostidis (2005). Pearson’s correlation coefficient was performed using the SPSS 17 software program to examine the potential relationships among physicochemical variables and phytoplankton diversity and density. Relations highly significant to the 0.05 level were noted. The waters of the Port Fouad saltworks were always clear, with the Secchi depth corresponding to the maximum depth of water due to the shallowness of the ponds (Table 1). The water of the shallower, more saline pond (P5, crystallizer pond) was warmer (29.3 °C) than that of the deeper, less saline pond (P1, 25.6 °C). The water salinity increased progressively throughout the series of interconnected ponds, giving a value of 340.

01) In contrast, comparing the effect of ATP depletion to that o

01). In contrast, comparing the effect of ATP depletion to that of BCRP inhibition ( Fig. 3B) showed that these two treatments caused similar changes to [3H]nifurtimox accumulation after 1, 2.5, 5 and 20 min, although it was noted that after 30 minutes ATP depletion caused a significantly greater increase (by 17–20%) in [3H]nifurtimox accumulation (p < 0.05). There

were no significant differences in [14C]sucrose accumulation between any treatments (data not shown). Probenecid (350 μM) was used to assess any initial contributions to [3H]nifurtimox and [14C]sucrose accumulation from proteins separate to P-gp and BCRP; namely multi-drug resistance associated selleck chemicals llc proteins (MRP) 1 and 2, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) (Table 1). Fig. 4 illustrates

the time dependent effect of probenecid on [3H]nifurtimox accumulation. This was not matched by the presence of 10 μM indomethacin, where no significant change to [3H]nifurtimox was observed at any time point. Taurocholic acid (TCA, 200 μM) and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH, 500 μM) were then ITF2357 datasheet used to assess function of OATPs and OATs respectively. The addition of TCA caused significant changes in [3H]nifurtimox accumulation from 2.5 min (p < 0.01) and onwards when all three time-points showed significant increases (p < 0.001 Fig. 3), albeit less than those observed with the BCRP inhibitors. PAH caused no significant differences in accumulation of [3H]nifurtimox at any time point. No significant differences in [14C]sucrose accumulation between any treatments were observed (data not shown). With

CTs becoming the treatments of choice for HAT, the effect of their addition to the accumulation buffer was observed on [3H]nifurtimox and [14C]sucrose accumulation. The accumulation of [3H]nifurtimox in the hCMEC/D3s was not significantly affected by unlabelled melarsoprol (30 μM), whereas unlabelled pentamidine (10 μM) caused an increase at 2.5 min (p < 0.01) and this was maintained onwards to 30 min (p < 0.001), in comparison to DMSO controls ( Fig. 5A). The effect Ketotifen of eflornithine (250 μM) and suramin (150 μM) on the accumulation of [3H]nifurtimox (without the presence of DMSO) saw no significant changes arise (Fig. 5B). There were no significant differences in [14C]sucrose accumulation between any of these treatments, or between DMSO and no DMSO controls (both [3H]nifurtimox and [14C]sucrose, data not shown). The potential of the compounds used in this study to cause cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT assay and the effect compared to untreated control endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) (Fig. 6). There were no significant differences on cell viability after 30 minutes exposure to the drugs, except when using the positive control 1% Triton X-100 (p < 0.01).

These kinds of data will help us better understand who will most

These kinds of data will help us better understand who will most benefit from behavioral or pharmacological interventions to reduce adrenergic signaling or stress response states – for example, what levels of stress/distress are necessary at the outset for an intervention

to make a difference. Moreover, the use of discrete interventions is useful for mechanistic research purposes, but it is possible that multifaceted total lifestyle interventions that address stress factors, as well as nutritional and exercise lifestyle components, will be necessary to profoundly impact cancer growth. To date, research on multimodal http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html interventions remains quite limited. Additionally, the effects of biobehavioral pathways on recovery Selleckchem Lapatinib from specific cancer treatments such as HSCT, adoptive immunotherapy, surgical recovery, are important frontiers for future work. Understanding tumor and treatment effects on the central nervous system are equally important.

As reported by some of the papers in this volume, we are just beginning to understand the relevant biology in post-chemotherapy fatigue and cognitive difficulties – this type of mechanistic understanding is critical before new treatments can be developed and tested. Future directions also include determination of what

are the most important intermediate outcome variables for biobehavioral cancer research. In addition to overall survival and progression-free survival, to what extent are gene signatures, metabolomics, and epigenetic changes important outcomes for this work? The research in this volume points to the dramatic discoveries that have been made in the last decade to define this field. Future research holds promise for discovery of novel biobehavioral signaling pathways that are relevant to cancer and a greater understanding of behavioral, pharmacologic, Galeterone and complementary interventions that target these mechanisms. In conclusion, we would be remiss if we did not thank lead authors and their authorship teams for contributing scientific advances relevant to this volume. These individuals and many others have worked quite tirelessly to improve methodological rigor, establish causation as appropriate, collaborate in the spirit of transdisciplinary team science, and move between different research designs to test and confirm experimental and clinical findings. We thank the many scholars who engaged in the peer review process to vet the invited mini-reviews and empirical papers that comprise this supplement.

The relative abundance of unilocular forms was not taken to perfo

The relative abundance of unilocular forms was not taken to perform factor analysis Trametinib chemical structure because their ecological preferences are not well known. Q-mode factor

analysis was performed on a reduced data set of the 51 highest ranked species (Table 1) at this site using a commercially distributed statistical package (SPSS 9.0) to establish the correlation between benthic foraminiferal assemblages and environmental conditions. This method involves principal component analysis followed by VARIMAX rotation. The benthic foraminiferal quantitative data were used to calculate Hurlbert’s diversity index, Sm (Hurlbert 1971). Hurlbert’s diversity index is defined by the function equation(1) Sm=∑i=1S1−CN−Ni,m/CNm, where Sm is the expected number of species in a random sub-sample of size m (m ≥ N). In the present study m = 100, which is well below the lowest number of specimens counted per sample. N is the number of specimens in the sample and S is the number of species in which N specimens are distributed. Ni is learn more the number of individuals in

the i-th species, ∑Ni=N. C(N − Ni, m) = (N − Ni)!/[m!(N − Ni − m)!] and C(N, m) = N!/[m!(N − M)!] for (N − Ni) ≥ m and N ≥ m respectively, and zero for (N − Ni) < m and N < m respectively (Smith & Grassle 1977). The percentages of shallow infaunal and other infaunal taxa were calculated following Wells et al. (1994), and the percentages of oxic and suboxic taxa were calculated following Kaiho (1994). We also compared the faunal diversity with some faunal abundance data. Benthic foraminifera were grouped into percentages

of total cylindrical elongate taxa (predominantly stilostomellids) following Hayward (2002) and Smart et al. (2007). High productivity taxa are explained as the sum of various infaunal taxa, i.e. Bulimina spp., Melonis spp., Uvigerina spp., Ehrenbergina spp., Eggerella bradyi, Sphaeroidina bulloides and Pullenia bulloides following Gooday, 1994 and Gooday, 2003 and Loubere (1996). The nannofossil datum levels, like those selected by Siesser et al. (1992), were used to construct the age model for Site 762B. But the Ureohydrolase numerical ages were reassigned according to the timescale of Berggren et al. (1995) and Lourens et al. (2004) (Figure 2). Our age model for this site is thus the same as that in Siesser et al. (1992) in their interpretation of the biomagnetostratigraphy, with differences only in the update of the numerical ages of datum levels (Table 2). Pliocene-Pleistocene deep sea benthic foraminifera show major fluctuations and long-term changes at ODP Site 762B (Figure 3 and Figure 4). The most abundant species include Uvigerina proboscidea, Cibicides lobatulus, Cibicides wuellerstorfi, Bulimina aculeata, Bulimina alazanensis, Stilostomella lepidula, Oridorsalis umbonatus and Gyroidinoides cibaoensis.