“Women with unintended

pregnancies are more likely

“Women with unintended

pregnancies are more likely to experience poor pregnancy outcomes. For women with medical conditions, unintended pregnancy selleck products may worsen the condition and carry even greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and perinatal death. Although safe and highly effective contraceptive methods are available to prevent unintended pregnancy, there may be concerns about the safety of contraceptive methods among women with medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recently developed the U. S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, which provides evidence-based recommendations for the safety of contraceptive use among women with medical conditions. Most women, even those with medical Selleck AZD7762 conditions, can safely use most methods of contraception.”
“Aim. To evaluate the frequency of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes and their neuropsychological characteristics

in. our population, and estimate the change in this frequency according to the extension of the neuropsychological examination. Patients and methods. Patients with diagnostic of MCI were included from 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2007. MCI was classified:as MCI-amnestic type (MCI-AT), MCI-multiple domain type (MCI-MDT) and MCI-single domain non amnestic (MCI-MNOA). A neuropsychological test was considered abnormal if its result was equal or less than 1.5 standard deviations from what expected for age and educational level. The cohort was divided in short evaluation (less than 14 test,from 2003-2005) and basic-extended evaluation (equal

or more than 14 test, from 2006-2007). Results. Out of 204 patients included, 51 (26%) were classified as MCI-AT 11 (5,4%) as MCI-MNOA and 142 (69,9%) as MCI-MDT A higher educational level was associated with an increase in the number of MCI-MDT The longer the evaluation, the greater was the proportion of MCI-MDT and MCI-MNOA and the lower the proportion of MCI-AT without statistical significance. Conclusions. The most frequent MCI subtype VX-809 cell line was MCI-MDT A more extended evaluation would. allow a better classification of MCI subtypes and increase the number of MCI-MDT and MCI-MNOA at the expense of MCI-AT. [REV NEUROL 2009; 48: 237-41]“
“Background and objectives: Conventional electroencephalogram (cEEG) is a reliable predictor of outcome in term infants with hypmdc ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Early therapeutic hypothermia initiated within 6 h after birth is a beneficial treatment in these infants. However, a classification system with reduced cEEG recording time to determine early intervention has not been reported. The aim of this study is to propose a new classification of depression on cEEG with reduced recording time in infants with HIE and to examine the correlation between the classification and short-term outcome.

In this method, the fungal supernatant was added to a mixture of

In this method, the fungal supernatant was added to a mixture of starch and silver nitrate solutions. The characteristics

of AgNPs synthesized by three independent processes a modified polysaccharide CCI-779 molecular weight method, a microbial method, and our novel method were compared. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed that the average sizes of AgNPs synthesized by the microbial method, the modified polysaccharide method, and our novel method were 84, 20, and 15 nm, respectively. The most stable AgNPs were generated by our novel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the products from the novel method showed that these AgNPs have high crystallinity. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that the functional groups present in the products prepared by the novel method are a combination of the functional groups present in the AgNPs Fludarabine synthesized by the other two methods. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein/bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI) homolog was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes cDNA library of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

The isolated LBP/BPI cDNA is 2806 bp in length with a 1419 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a protein of 472 amino acid residues. The LPS-binding domain is well conserved in the N-terminal barrel, showing high sequence identities with other teleost LBP/BPI as well as those of mammals. RT-PCR www.selleckchem.com/products/shp099-dihydrochloride.html analysis revealed that mRNA expression of LBP/BPI was significantly elevated in all tested tissues (liver, gill, intestine, head kidney, and spleen) after intraperitoneal injection of the gram-negative bacterium Edwardsiella tarda or the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus iniae. This expression pattern profile corresponded to that of acute inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that it plays a role in the innate immune response, in particular, the acute phase response. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) are among the major health problems, and cross-sectional studies suggest an association between smoking and MSCs. The causal relationship, however, is

not known. The present study is designed to assess the association between smoking and chronic MSCs, and is based on data from a large longitudinal cohort study of all inhabitants >= 20 years in Nord-Trondelag County (Helse Undersokelsen i Nord-Trondelag -HUNT), conducted in 1995-97 (HUNT 2) and 2006-08 (HUNT 3). The study population consisted of 15,134 subjects without chronic MSCs and valid exposure data on smoking at baseline (HUNT 2). The outcome was defined as presence of chronic MSCs at follow-up (HUNT 3). The results show that smoking at baseline represents a 20% increased risk (IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.27, P = 0.0001) for chronic MSCs at follow-up. The risk for chronic MSCs by daily smoking decreased with increasing age up to 50 years; after this, there was no significant association.

05) Reported VAS regarding pain from epidural puncture was lower

05). Reported VAS regarding pain from epidural puncture was lower LDC000067 clinical trial in Groups IA and Ib. Patients’ satisfaction was greater with parecoxib

in comparison with placebo.\n\nConclusion: The levels of anxiety have been investigated in several medical procedures and early, in the study of pain. The higher the expectation of pain and the anxiety are, the higher the intensity of the pain. Parecoxib seems to exert positive influence on pain and anxiety levels of interventional procedure. Further studies are needed to elucidate the actual mechanisms that are involved.”
“Chemo- and regio-selective epoxide phenolysis is reported for the first time under neutral condition catalysed by silver nanoparticles. Other metal nanoparticles (e.g., Au, Pd, Cu, In, and Ru) are less effective. The choice of solvent is critical with 2-propanol being the best followed by DEF. Amongst various stabilisers used (surfactants, PEGs, tetra-allcylammonium halides) the tetra-alkylammonium halides Dinaciclib research buy are found to be the most effective (TBAF bigger than TBAB bigger than TBACl bigger than TBAI). The role of the silver nanoparticles is envisaged as synchronous mode epoxide-phenol dual activation via a cooperative network of coordination, anion-it interaction, and hydrogen bond. The silver nanoparticles are recovered and reused for five consecutive times. The reaction has been used for the synthesis of

propranolol and naftopidil as a few representative cardiovascular drugs. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The metallo-beta-lactamases (M beta Ls), which

require one or two Zn(II) ions in their active sites for activity, hydrolyze the amide bond in S-lactam-containing antibiotics, and render the antibiotics inactive. All known M beta Ls contain a mobile element near their active sites, and these mobile elements have been implicated in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes. However little is known about the dynamics of these elements. In this study, we prepared a site-specific, double spin-labeled analog of homotetrameric M beta L L1 with spin labels at positions 163 and 286 and analyzed the sample with DEER (double electron electron resonance) spectroscopy. Four unique distances were observed in the DEER distance distribution, and these distances were assigned AZD2014 chemical structure to the desired intramolecular dipolar coupling (between spin labels at positions 163 and 286 in one subunit) and to intermolecular dipolar couplings. To rid the spin-labeled analog of L1 of the intermolecular couplings, spin-labeled L1 was “diluted” by unfolding/refolding the spin-labeled enzyme in the presence of excess wild-type L1. DEER spectra of the resulting, spin-diluted enzyme revealed a single distance corresponding to the desire intramolecular dipolar coupling. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Papillary muscle rupture is now a rare complication of acute myocardial infarction.

Although the sources

Although the sources PD173074 in vitro of oxidant production during exercise continue to be debated, growing evidence suggests that mitochondria are not the dominant source. Regardless of the sources of oxidants in contracting muscles, intense and prolonged exercise can result in oxidative damage to both proteins and lipids in the contracting myocytes. Further, oxidants regulate numerous cell signaling pathways and modulate the expression

of many genes. This oxidant-mediated change in gene expression involves changes at transcriptional, mRNA stability, and signal transduction levels. Furthermore, numerous products associated with oxidant-modulated genes have been identified and include antioxidant enzymes, stress proteins, and mitochondrial electron transport proteins. Interestingly, check details low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species result in contractile dysfunction and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to explore the redox-sensitive targets in muscle that are responsible

for both redox regulation of muscle adaptation and oxidant-mediated muscle fatigue. (C) 2011 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 1: 941-969, 2011.”
“Sesquiterpene lactone mix detects contact allergy to these compounds present in the plant family Asteraceae. This marker is present in many baseline series. An additional marker is Compositae mix, which is not present in many baseline series. To investigate whether this allergen should be inserted into the Swedish baseline

series, six dermatology centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included Compositae mix into their baseline series for 1.5 years. Of 2,818 patients tested, 31 (1.1%) reacted to Compositae mix and 26 (0.9%) to Sesquiterpene lactone mix. Active sensitization to Compositae mix was noted in two cases. Only 0.4% of Asteraceae contact allergy cases would have been missed if Compositae mix had not BAY 73-4506 molecular weight been tested, a frequency too low to merit its inclusion in the baseline series. Due to obvious geographical differences in frequency of simultaneous allergic reactions to Compositae mix and Sesquiterpene lactone mix, the question as to whether specific baseline series (including Compositae mix or not as a “tail” substance) should be used in the different centres must be addressed. Another option could be to remove Sesquiterpene lactone mix from the baseline series and substitute it with Compositae mix.”
“Before implantation, the porcine endometrium and trophoblast synthesize elevated amounts of luteoprotective prostaglandin estradiol-17 beta (E-2) (PGE(2)).

5 +/- 16 4 ng/mL) than lower (19 0 +/- 13 5 ng/mL) grades The Cu

5 +/- 16.4 ng/mL) than lower (19.0 +/- 13.5 ng/mL) grades. The Cu level was unaffected by sex and age in the sound teeth group. The Cu level in children with caries experience (5.7 +/- 5.3 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that of the sound teeth group. Moreover,

the Cu levels in children with untreated caries were significantly higher than that of the sound teeth group, and increased with the number of untreated teeth. No significant difference was found in the Cu concentrations between the group in which all decayed teeth were treated and the sound teeth group. The Mn levels were similar with or GW-572016 solubility dmso without caries and treatment. These findings indicate that the Mn level in mixed saliva depended on sex and age, and suggest the possibility of Cu dissolving into mixed saliva by demineralization due to dental caries. (C) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Stroke or cerebrovascular accident is the second most common cause of death in Western countries. Although stroke is a treatable disease, the majority of patients do not receive intravenous thrombolysis or catheter-based therapy. The lack of treatment is multifactorial. Several treatments have been studied. Research and development in the area of acute stroke treatment

SBE-β-CD ic50 are ongoing.\n\n(J Interven Cardiol 2009;22:1-8).”
“Dendrochronological research in Southeast Asia is under development; however, the amount of tress with potential for dendrochronological studies is restricted. For example, teak trees from India, Myanmar, Thailand, and Java are valuable dendrochronologic studies for ready climate response. Teak from Java is best suited for studying the El Nio-Southern Oscillation and sea-surface temperatures, whereas Indian teak is used to reconstruct periods of drought in India. Further, Thai teak and Vietnamese cypress trees captured the long drought period that led to the demise of the Angkor reign (fourteenth-fifteenth century). Diverse techniques including anatomical observation, cambial markings, cell differentiation, and isotopic analysis prove the age and growth of invisible

tropical tree rings. A number of invisible growth rings in trees from both tropical and subtropical forests have been identified, resulting in the advancement of dendrochronology. Climate change is a substantial challenge for most living Selleck LBH589 things and natural resources. A greater understanding of tree species adaptation in this region is necessary. The understanding of long-term paleoclimate can be gained by researching old samples and archaeological materials from this region.”
“Background: Rotenone is an environmental neurotoxin that induces accumulation of alpha-synuclein and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated whether rotenone induced impairment of autophagic flux and lysosomal functions.

However, most species were

found only as individual plant

However, most species were

found only as individual plants in the filtration bed margins with the exception of Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) in the inflow zone and Epilobium hirsutum (Hairy willowherb) in the outflow zone of several systems. It has been found that the number of “weedy” species decreases with increasing length of operation. In systems, where “weedy” species overgrew the originally planted species, treatment efficiency was not affected. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We examined vegetation structure and woody species diversity in relation to 14 environmental and anthropogenic factors in ten tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments in central Veracruz, Mexico. The basal area of the canopy (30.2 +/- A 2.11 m(2)/ha) and understory (1.96 +/- A 0.12 m(2)/ha) trees was similar, but density (1,014 +/- A 104 and 2,532 +/- A 227 individuals/ha, respectively) differed among Selleckchem DMXAA sites. We recorded 98 canopy, 77 understory,

and 60 seedling species. Richness was 24-45 species per site, Fisher’s alpha and Shannon’s indices increased with site altitude. Chao Jaccard indices revealed high species turnover, and a consistently higher ��-catenin signaling similarity within the sites at the lowest and within the highest elevation sites. Ordination identified altitude, aspect, slope, water proximity, cattle and trails as significant explanatory variables of species patterns, and showed that sites at lower elevations were clearly separated from the other sites. Environmental heterogeneity alone did not control

species diversity distribution, but species were affected by environmental filters at different stages in their life cycle, e.g., water proximity was significant for saplings and seedlings but not for adults. Anthropogenic disturbances act synergistically, e.g., trails played a key role in determining structure and tree diversity patterns. An important finding is that human disturbance diminishes species see more diversity in this TDF, but sites at lower elevations were more disturbed and less diverse, therefore we need to study how environmental factors would act if there were no anthropogenic disturbance.”
“(Seedling morphology of Rhynchosia species (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from Roraima, Brazil). This paper aims to describe, illustrate and compare the seedling morphology of the four species of Rhynchosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) that occur in Roraima, Brazil. The studied species, R. phaseoloides (SW.) DC., R. melanocarpa Grear, R. minima (L.) DC., and R. schomburgkii Benth., possess crypto-hypogeal-reserve seedlings, eophylls at the first node that are 1-foliolate and opposite, and double and free stipules. The results show that morphological diversity found among seedlings of the studied species can be used to identify them at the specific level.

In this study the stability of the mammalian HRD1-SEL1L complex w

In this study the stability of the mammalian HRD1-SEL1L complex was assessed by performing siRNA-mediated knockdown of each of its components. Although endogenous SEL1L is a long-lived protein, the half-life of SEL1L was greatly reduced when HRD1 is

silenced. Conversely, transiently expressed SEL1L was rapidly degraded but Repotrectinib mw was stabilized when HRD1 was coexpressed. This was in contrast to the yeast Hrd1p-Hrd3p, where Hrd1p is destabilized by the depletion of Hrd3p, the SEL1L homologue. Endogenous HRD1-SEL1L formed a large ERAD complex (Complex I) associating with numerous ERAD components including ERAD lectin OS-9, membrane-spanning Derlin-1/2, VIMP, and Herp, whereas

selleck chemicals transiently expressed HRD1-SEL1L formed a smaller complex (Complex II) that was associated with OS-9 but not with Derlin-1/2, VIMP, or Herp. Despite its lack of stable association with the latter components, Complex II supported the retrotranslocation and degradation of model ERAD substrates alpha 1-antitrypsin null Hong-Kong (NHK) and its variant NHK-QQQ lacking the N-glycosylation sites. NHK-QQQ was rapidly degraded when SEL1L was transiently expressed, whereas the simultaneous transfection of HRD1 diminished that effect. SEL1L unassociated with HRD1 was degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which suggests the involvement of a ubiquitin-ligase other than HRD1 in the rapid degradation of both SEL1L and NHK-QQQ. These results indicate that the regulation of the stability and assembly of the HRD1-SEL1L complex is critical to optimize the degradation kinetics of ERAD substrates.”
“Aim: In Philadelphia (Ph)-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, increased microvascular density, bizarre vessel architecture and increased number of pericytes are

among the distinct histopathological features. The aim of this study was to characterize bone marrow pericytes in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) using a novel multi-labelling immunohistochemical technique.\n\nMethods and results: Bone marrow biopsies from a normal donor (n = 1) and patients with PMF (n selleck screening library = 3) were subjected to an immunohistochemical sequential multi-labelling and erasing technique (SE-technique). Antigens of interest in the first and / or second layer were detected with an immunoperoxidase system and visualized with aminoethylcarbazole. After imaging, erasing and blocking of immunoreagents, the slides were stained with a traditional double immunolabelling procedure. In addition, we applied a Photoshop (R) colour palette, creating a single composite image of the sequential staining procedures. We successfully applied four layers of antibodies on one slide using CD146, smooth muscle actin, CD34, CD271 and Ki67 in different combinations.

We conclude that the short-term retention of information can be s

We conclude that the short-term retention of information can be supported by the temporary reactivation

of LTM representations.”
“The in vivo apoplastic fluid secretome of rice-blast fungus interaction remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a proteomics investigation of in vivo secreted proteins of rice leaves infected with incompatible (KJ401) and compatible (KJ301) races of Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) using 2-DGE and MudPIT coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS and/or nESI-LC-MS/MS analyses. Prepared fractions of secretory proteins were essentially free from cytoplasmic contamination. Two-DGE and MudPIT identified 732 secretory proteins, check details where 291 (40%) and 441 (60%) proteins were derived from rice and M. oryzae, respectively. Of these, 39.2% (rice) and 38.9% (M. oryzae) of proteins were predicted by SignalP as retaining signal peptides. Among these, rice secreted more proteins related to stress response, ROS and energy metabolism, whereas, M. oryzae secreted more proteins involved in metabolism and cell

wall hydrolyses. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed their differential expression under compatible/incompatible interactions. In vivo expression of M. oryzae glycosyl hydrolase (GH) protein Crenolanib manufacturer family members using particle bombardment driven transient expression system showed that four GH genes could act as effectors within host apoplast possibly via interaction with host membrane bound receptor. The established in vivo secretome serves as a valuable resource toward secretome analysis of rice-M. oryzae interaction. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Urolithiasis is a common multifactorial urological disorder GSK1210151A that is characterized by stone formation. Interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are pro-inflammatory cytokines that might be linked with urolithiasis. The single nucleotide polymorphisms within the IL-1 and IL-6 cytokine genes altered the cytokine expression levels. Our aim was to investigate the potential of IL-1 beta (-511 C>T), IL-6 (-174 G>C,

572 G>C, 597 G>A) and IL-1 RN VNTR gene polymorphisms to be a genetic marker for urinary stone disease. The polymorphisms studied in the promoter regions of IL-1 beta and IL-6 genes did not reveal a strong association with urolithiasis when compared to the control group (p = 0.293, 0.871, 0.921, 0.536, respectively). However, a significant difference was observed between control and patient groups for IL-1 RN VNTR gene polymorphism (chi(2) = 6.131, d.f. = 2, p = 0.047). Our data provide evidence that IL-1RN VNTR gene polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of urinary stone formation, contributing to genetic susceptibility for urolithiasis. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease featuring inflammatory nodules, fistulas and discharge of secretions in the intertriginous regions. Without therapy the disease is chronic and progressive.

These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social reari

These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.”
“Diaporthe species and their Phomopsis Selleckchem FK866 anamorphs are endophytes and pathogens oil a wide range of plant hosts, and are responsible for several diseases, some of which are of economic importance. Species in this genus have been described mainly on the basis of host association and to a lesser extent on their micromorphology. However, studies have revealed

that host association is of minor taxonomic importance, due to the wide host ranges of some species. Moreover, more than one species can occur on a single host. On the other hand, morphological characters are not always suitable for species definition because of their plasticity and overlap between different species. Foeniculum vulgare is an herbaceous plant known to harbour a complex of Diaporthe and Phomopsis species. In this study, this complex is resolved and several taxa are delineated. An intensive sampling of Diaporthe species and Phomopsis anamorphs found on F. vulgare in Portugal was done

and a collection of isolates was established in culture. Isolates were characterised and grouped according to their microsatellite-primed PCR (MSP-PCR) profiles. Representative isolates were subsequently selected for a molecular phylogeny based on Acalabrutinib the rDNA ITS region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Combining morphological, cultural and molecular data, four species were distinguished from F. vulgare. Diaporthe angelicue is shown to be the most common pathogen of this host in Portugal. Diaporthe lusitanicae is Selleck Ispinesib newly described, whereas the teleomorph of Phomopsis theicola was revealed to be distinct from Diaporthe theicola, and is described as Diaporthe neotheicola.”
“Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) energy reaching on the vegetated surface is a key determinant of plant physiological processes. Most of biosphere or crop

models use the ratio of PAR to incoming solar radiation (R(s)), PAR/R(s), to convert R(s) into PAR in order to reduce weather data-input requirements. Several existing models simply specify a constant ratio, PAR/R(s) = 0.5. However, some field experiments have reported that the ratio PAR/R(s) may not be constant. Previous empirical equations of PAR/R(s) were derived based on the data of monthly or daily timescales collected from only a few measurement sites, hence they may not be appropriate to be used in current global biosphere models usually with hourly simulation time steps. Here, we represent the exponential correlation between PAR/R(s) and sky clearness index (0-1) using hourly data from 54 Ameriflux measurement sites. It is found that PAR/R(s) increases up to 0.6 in cloudy conditions when the clearness index (CI) is below similar to 0.2, whereas it is nearly constant at similar to 0.42 when CI is above 0.2.


Whereas XMU-MP-1 inhibitor morphological lesions or structural changes are associated with more or less irreversible deficits, epileptic activity, seizures, and the treatment of epilepsy can cause dynamic and principally reversible impairment. The relative contribution of these factors differs depending on the type of epilepsy, the age at lesion/epilepsy onset, the localization and lateralization of epilepsy and individual demographic patient characteristics.

Altered brain structure and function can result in epilepsy, but epilepsy can also alter the functional cerebral organization of the brain. Thus epilepsy-related cognitive impairment must be integrated within a developmental neuropsychological framework. The aetiology of epilepsy is strongly related to the age of onset. From a neuropsychological point of view, it makes a big difference for cognitive outcome as to whether epilepsy hits the maturing versus mature or aging brain. Dependent on this, epilepsy can result in retardation, loss of acquired functions, or accelerated mental decline. It will be demonstrated that cognitive impairments in epilepsy mostly exist from the beginning of epilepsy, that early onset lesions/epilepsy interfere with mental development, and that a progressive aetiology, severe seizures, and lesions secondary to epilepsy may accelerate

mental decline. It will furthermore be discussed that uncontrolled epilepsy and epileptic activity may reversibly and irreversibly contribute to cognitive impairment.

this website The same is demonstrated with regard to the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy. Finally, the cognitive risks and benefits of epilepsy surgery and the advantages of selective surgery will be addressed. The consequences for the neuropsychological assessment are discussed in part two of this review.”
“The extent selleck chemical to which social cognitive changes reflect a discrete constellation of symptoms dissociable from general cognitive changes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is unclear. Moreover, whether social cognitive symptoms contribute to disease severity and progression is unknown. The current multicenter study investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social cognition measured with six items from the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, general cognition, and dependence in 517 participants with probable AD. Participants were monitored every 6 months for 5.5 years. Results from multivariate latent growth curve models adjusted for sex, age, education, depression, and recruitment site revealed that social cognition and general cognition were unrelated cross-sectionally and throughout time. However, baseline levels of each were related independently to dependence, and change values of,each were related independently to change in dependence. These findings highlight the separability of social and general cognition in AD.