“We report results on a dimensionally gradient magnetoelectric (ME) sensor that demonstrates high performance over a wide frequency AZD4547 research buy range and a magnetic dc bias operating in the longitudinal-transversal mode. The design of the sensor is based on a piezoelectric bimorph structure and utilizes a laminate configuration with
Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)(0.2)(Zr0.5Ti0.5)(0.8)O-3 and Metglas as material layers. The wide-band behavior was characterized by a flat ME response over a wide range of magnetic dc biases corresponding to 60-215 Oe and frequencies corresponding to 7-22 kHz. By using tip mass, the wide-band frequency response was shifted to a lower frequency range of 5-14 kHz. The results show that the operating frequency range of the sensor can be easily shifted by changing the tip mass at the end of the composite.”
“A wide range of techniques have been described for ankle arthrodesis,
and although all of these have been shown to provide stability, few have been shown to achieve a solid construct in patients at risk of nonunion. In this technical guide, we describe a modified transfibular approach to ankle arthrodesis that uses a fibularonlay strut graft for use in patients at high risk for nonunion. In our experience, the technique has been effective and reliable. (C) 2010 by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.”
“Brain perfusion tracers like [Tc-99m] d,l-hexamethyl-propyeneamine oxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO) and [Tc-99m] ethyl-cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) underestimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at high flow values. To improve linearity between tracer Z-DEVD-FMK accumulation and rCBF, two different models have been proposed. One is Lassen’s correction algorithm for back-diffusion of tracer, and the other is based on the permeability-surface (PS) model
for correction of low first-pass extraction. Although both these models have the same goal, they have completely different forms of equation. It was demonstrated that mathematical approximation of the PS model equation leads to Lassen’s equation. find more In this process, the relationship between PS, CBF values and Lassen’s parameter was acquired, and how to correct both the back-diffusion and low first-pass extraction was also demonstrated. A computer simulation confirmed that the two models provided similar consequences when the parameter value is chosen according to the relationship found. Lassen’s equation can be used to correct not only back-diffusion but also low first-pass extraction. To perform overall correction, the parameter value we have been using for decades may be too weak. I estimated that the parameter value for overall correction of HMPAO would be around 0.5, and that of ECD would be around 0.65.”
“A sound understanding of the taxonomy of threatened species is essential for setting conservation priorities and the development of management strategies.
The IHDS should be further evaluated in large cohort HIV+ and HIV- populations in the United States, as there remains a significant need to identify an effective brief screening tool for cognitive impairment.”
“Background: Acyclovir is used to treat herpes infections in preterm and term infants; however, the influence of maturation on drug disposition and dosing requirements is poorly
characterized in this population. Methods: We administered intravenous acyclovir to preterm and term infants smaller than 31 days postnatal age and collected plasma samples. We performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis. The primary pharmacodynamic target NVP-BSK805 was acyclovir concentration bigger than = 3 mg/L for bigger than = 50% of the dosing interval. The final model was simulated using infant data from a clinical database. Results: The analysis included 28 infants (median 30 weeks gestation). Acyclovir pharmacokinetics was described by a 1-compartment model: clearance (L/h/kg) = 0.305 GSI-IX research buy x [postmenstrual age (PMA)/31.3 weeks](3.02). This equation predicts a 4.5-fold
increase in clearance from 25 to 41 weeks PMA. With proposed dosing, the pharmacodynamic target was achieved in 91% of infants: 20 mg/kg every 12 hours in infants smaller than 30 weeks PMA; 20 mg/kg every 8 hours in infants 30 to smaller than 36 weeks PMA and 20 mg/kg every 6 hours in infants 36-41 weeks PMA. Conclusions: Acyclovir clearance increased with infant maturation. A dosing strategy based on PMA accounted for developmental changes in acyclovir disposition to achieve the surrogate pharmacodynamic target CFTR inhibitor in many infants.”
“A severe PM10 episode was observed at the high elevation observatory of Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l.) in the period of 13th-15th March 2004; during the event PM10 reached the maximum concentration
(80 mu g m(-3) against an average of 8.8 +/- 8.0 mu g m(-3)) between 1998 and 2011. Meteo-synoptical analysis allowed to ascribe this event to a long lasting and highly coherent Saharan dust outbreak, starting at the beginning of March. The peculiar synoptic configuration causing this massive transport of dust was characterized by a steep gradient between an upper level trough extending to low latitudes with a minimum centred over the North-Western Algerian coast and a Saharan high extending all over the Mediterranean Sea with an elongated north-eastward tongue, whose synergic effect led to a peculiar funnel-shaped dust plume. During the period Mt. Cimone was located exactly along its main axis. The event was first analysed in association with simultaneous more or less conventional compositional parameters such as Be-7, (210)pb, and ozone. Subsequently, it was characterized in details both in terms of time and space evolution.
The FVIII:Ag contents of the rFVIII Kogenate, and Advate and a pd-FVIII-pd-VWF (Fanhdi) were measured by ELISA. The FX activation was initiated by adding 1.0 IU of FVIII:C of each FVIII-containing product to a coagulant phospholipids suspension
containing 1.0 nm FIXa, 100 nm FX, 1 mu m hirudin and 2 mm calcium chloride and measured after 1, 5 and 10 min. The same approach was followed after adding 2.0 IU of pd-VWF to1.0 IU of FVIII:C of Kogenate or Advate. The FVIII:Ag content/IU of FVIII:C of Kogenate, Advate and Fanhdi were 1.80 +/- 0.05, 1.31 +/- 0.9 and 0.84 +/- 1.5 IU respectively. Only Kogenate and Advate effectively enhanced FX activation 1 min after adding each FVIII:C to the coagulant suspension containing FIXa and FX. Thus, the FXa initially generated by FIXa readily activated FVIII:C in control Kogenate and Advate to thereby effectively enhance FX activation while the VWF in Fanhdi continued to suppress FX activation Small molecule library for up to 10 min. Cyclopamine Addition of pd-VWF to Kogenate or Advate effectively decreased their enhancements of FX activation to the same level as Fanhdi over 10 min. The FVIII:Ag fraction in Kogenate and Advate that cannot bind VWF appears to be inactive as it has no measureable FVIII:C activity in the presence of added VWF in vitro.”
“The ectodermal neural
cortex (ENC) gene family, whose members are implicated in neurogenesis, is part of the kelch repeat superfamily. To date, ENC genes have been identified only in osteichthyans, although other kelch repeat-containing genes are prevalent throughout bilaterians. The lack of elaborate molecular phylogenetic analysis with exhaustive taxon sampling has obscured the possible link of the establishment of this gene family with vertebrate novelties. In this study, we identified ENC homologs in diverse vertebrates by means of database mining and polymerase chain reaction screens. Our analysis revealed that the ENC3 ortholog was lost in the basal eutherian lineage through single-gene deletion and that the this website triplication between ENC1, -2, and -3 occurred
early in vertebrate evolution. Including our original data on the catshark and the zebrafish, our comparison revealed high conservation of the pleiotropic expression pattern of ENC1 and shuffling of expression domains between ENC1, -2, and -3. Compared with many other gene families including developmental key regulators, the ENC gene family is unique in that conventional molecular phylogenetic inference could identify no obvious invertebrate ortholog. This suggests a composite nature of the vertebrate-specific gene repertoire, consisting not only of de novo genes introduced at the vertebrate origin but also of long-standing genes with no apparent invertebrate orthologs. Some of the latter, including the ENC gene family, may be too rapidly evolving to provide sufficient phylogenetic signals marking orthology to their invertebrate counterparts.
\n\nIn the first approach, formed liposomes (basic and polymerically enhanced) were sequentially layered with appropriate cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes followed by transformation into polymer-coated nanobubbles. In addition, a one-step approach was employed for the fabrication of ionotropically originated polymeric hydrogel bubbles.\n\nBubble selleck kinase inhibitor lifetime was marginally
enhanced by self-deposition of polyelectrolytes onto the normal lipobubble, however, not significantly (P = 0.0634). In general, formulations possessing a higher ratio of anionic:cationic coats and highly anionic overall surface charge (-20.62 mV to -17.54 mV) possessed an enhanced lifetime. The improvement in bubble lifetime was significant selleck products when a purely polymeric polyionic hydrogel bubble shell was instituted compared to a normal unmodified lipobubble (P = 0.004). There was enhanced persistence of
these systems compared to lipobubbles, attributed to the highly flexible, interconnected hydrogel shell which minimized gas leakage. The prolonged contrast signal may also be attributed to a degree of polymeric deposition/endothelial attachment.\n\nThis study identified the relevance of polymeric modifications to nanobubbles for an improved circulating lifetime, which would be essential for application of these systems in passive drug or gene targeting via the enhanced permeability and retention effect.”
“Mutations found in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a putative mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase of unknown function, have been linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease. It is suggested that mutations can cause a loss of PINK1 kinase DZNeP activity and eventually lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. In this report, we examined the subcellular localization of PINK1 and the dynamic kinetics of PINK1 processing and degradation.
We also identified cytosolic chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as an interacting protein of PINK1 by PINK1 co-immunoprecipitation. Immunofluorescence of PINK1 protein and mitochondrial isolation show that the precursor form of PINK1 translocates to the mitochondria and is processed into two cleaved forms of PINK1, which in turn localize more to the cytosolic than mitochondrial fraction. The cleavage does not occur and the uncleaved precursor stays associated with the mitochondria when the mitochondrial membrane potential is disrupted. Metabolic labeling analyses show that the PINK1 processing is rapid and the levels of cleaved forms are tightly regulated.
“Basic properties of vehicle interior are described. Car seat design, upholstetry fabrics and passenger safety have been particularly emphasized. Textile fabrics as products providing comfort, safety and esthetics of the vehicle interior were dealt with. Safety belts, airbags and car seat covers were specially pointed click here out. Specific problems related to the safety of passengers; whose anthropometric measurements deviate from the average ones, were addressed.”
“1. Pest management strategies should be informed by research on a broad suite of biotic and abiotic interactions. We used a life table response experiment (LTRE) to assess
the reliability of ragwort Jacobaea vulgaris management recommendations based on interactions of (i) time of disturbance to initiate experimental units, (ii) herbivory from two biological control organisms, the cinnabar moth Tyria jacobaeae and ragwort flea beetle Longitarsus jacobaeae and (iii) interspecific competition by perennial grasses.\n\n2. Our LTRE combines a factorial experiment with a linear, deterministic matrix model for ragwort populations representing transitions among three stages: 1st year juveniles, 2nd year juveniles and adults. Elasticity analysis identified potentially vulnerable ragwort Quisinostat molecular weight transitions, and a contributions analysis confirmed which
treatments influenced these transitions. Ultimate treatment effects were quantified as the reduction in population growth rates and time to local extinction.\n\n3. Elasticity analyses found the ragwort’s biennial pathway, juvenile to
adult transition and fertility transition were most influential and most amenable to manipulation across all community configurations. The flea beetle and perennial grass competition had negative effects on survival and fertility, whereas the cinnabar moth only reduced fertility and induced the perennial pathway.\n\n4. All combinations of insects or increased plant competition reduced the growth rate of ragwort. Full interspecific competition and the flea beetle resulted in a significantly greater and faster decline check details in the ragwort populations than the cinnabar moth. Moreover, this pattern was consistent between two times of initial disturbance.\n\n5. Synthesis and applications. Maximizing plant competition provides the fastest way to control ragwort. If this option is unavailable, for example, grazed or disturbed land, the ragwort flea beetle provides excellent management to lower ragwort densities without the potential nontarget effects of the cinnabar moth. Factorial experiments and matrix models help to evaluate interacting factors that influence invasive species’ vulnerabilities, inform how to intervene in a weed life cycle to reduce weed abundance and confirm recommendations that are robust to community variation.
Patients with DR had a higher risk of blindness (vision
less than 6/60) compared to those without DR ( odds ratio 5.0; 95% confidence interval 3.74, 6.69). Laser surgery had to be used for 85 (20.3%) DR patients. Early cataract and trachomatous corneal opacities were main co-morbidities.\n\nConclusions: The coverage of screening for diabetes and DR in our study area was less than the national coverage. Better management facilities for DR could improve patients’ eye care at Sumail Hospital. Good vision in persons with diabetes could be a reason for them not accepting regular eye check-ups and laser treatment.”
“In the title S3I-201 research buy compound, C12H10BrN, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 52.5 (1)degrees, whereas the pitch angles, or the angles between the mean plane of each aryl group `propeller blade’ and the plane defined by the aryl bridging C-N-C angle, are 19.6 (2) VS-6063 supplier and 36.2 (3)degrees. While the N-H group is not involved in hydrogen-bonding interactions, the structure exhibits a network of intermolecular C-H…pi and N-H…pi interactions.”
“Fibromyalgia (FM) and migraine are common chronic disorders that predominantly affect women. The prevalence of headache in patients with FM is high (35%-88%), with migraine being the most frequent type. A particular subgroup of patients with FM (approximately half) presents with a combined clinical form of these two painful
disorders, which may exhibit a different manner of progression regarding symptomatology and impact on daily activities. This article reviews several common aspects of the pathophysiology regarding pain control mechanisms and neuroendocrine dysfunction occurring in FM and migraine, particularly in the chronic form of the latter. We also discuss the participation of hypothalamic and brainstem centers of pain control, the putative role played by neurotransmitters or neuromodulators on central sensitization, and changes in their levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Understanding their mechanisms will help to establish new treatment strategies for treating these disabling brain disorders.”
polymer-supported www.selleckchem.com/products/tariquidar.html reagent has been developed that utilizes the reactivity of silicate to generate polyanionic Keggin structures. Heptamolybdate and heptatungstate anions are immobilized onto trimethylammonium ligands bound to microporous poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) beads. The heptamolybdate complexes >90% of the silicate from a 20 ppm solution at pH 7; the heptatungstate has a lower affinity, complexing 40% of the silicate. Complexation by the heptamolybdate remains high throughout the pH range 3.8-10.7. Sorption is unaffected by the presence of chloride, sulfate, and nitrate ions. The apparent rate of reaction is maximized by immobilizing the ligand on an expanded gel support: whereas the microporous polymer requires 24 h to complex all of the silicate from a 100 ppm solution, the expanded gel attains that level in 4 h.
(First Release Dec 152011; J Rheumatol 2012;39:262-8; doi:10.3899/jrheum.110327)”
“Crown www.selleckchem.com/products/azd3965.html rot of wheat (Triticum aestivum), predominantly caused by the fungus Fusarium pseudograminearum, has become an increasingly
important disease constraint in many winter cereal production regions in Australia. Our group has previously identified a range of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for partial resistance to crown rot in various bread wheat sources. Here, we report on work that has assessed the effectiveness of pyramiding QTL to improve resistance to crown rot. Two doubled haploid populations were analysed-one from a cross between two previously characterised sources of partial seedling resistance (2-49 and W21MMT70; n = 208) and one from a cross between 2-49 and the commercial variety Sunco, a source of adult field resistance (n = 134). Both populations were phenotyped for seedling resistance to crown rot. Microsatellite and DArT markers were used to construct whole genome linkage maps for use in composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify QTL. Three QTL were detected in both trials conducted on the 2-49/W21MMT70 population. These were located on chromosomes 1D (QCr.usq-1D.1), 3B (QCr.usq-3B.1)
and 7A. QCr.usq-1D.1 and the previously undetected 7A QTL were inherited from 2-49. QCr.usq-3B.1, inherited from W21MMT70, was the most significant of the QTL, explaining up to 40.5% of the phenotypic variance. Three QTL were identified in multiple trials of the Sunco/2-49 population. These were located on chromosomes 1D (QCr.usq-1D.1), 2B (QCr.usq-2B.2) and 4B (QCr.usq-4B.1). Only see more QCr.usq-2B.2 was inherited from Sunco. QCr.usq-4B.1 was the most significant
of these QTL, explaining up to 19.1% of the phenotypic variance. In the 2-49/W21MMT70 population, several DH lines performed significantly better than either parent, with the best https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Thiazovivin.html recording an average disease severity rating of only 3.8% of that scored by the susceptible check cultivar Puseas. These lines represent a new level of seedling crown rot resistance in wheat.”
“As ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity limits light-saturated photosynthesis under present atmospheric condition, the effects of an overexpression of RBCSon Rubisco content and photosynthesis were examined in the leaves at different positions in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rubisco content in the transformant was significantly greater in the uppermost, fully expanded leaves but decreased to levels similar to those in wild-type plants in the lower leaves. The mRNA levels of total RBCS and rbcL in these leaves were much less than those in the expanding leaves, where Rubisco synthesis is active, suggesting commensurately low level of synthesis. Although the activation state of Rubisco was lower in the uppermost, fully expanded leaves of the transformant, it recovered to its full level in the lower leaves.
Patient demographics, type of procedure performed, and complications were reviewed.\n\nResults: Sixty-nine patients SRT2104 mw and a total of 129 eyelids were included in the study. Eight procedures were spacers in the upper lid, 104 were for spacers in the lower lid, and 17 were for lateral canthal reinforcement. Twenty-two procedures were in primary cases and 47 were in eyelids for secondary reconstructions, for a total of 69 patients. There were 13 eyelid complications, for a complication rate of 10 percent. Nine cases required surgical revision, and there were four
cases of infection, all of which were successfully treated with oral and topical antibiotics.\n\nConclusions: Enduragen has proved to be a very satisfactory substitute for ear cartilage and fascia in eyelid surgery in both reconstructive and primary eyelid cases. It seems to be far superior to other commercially available tissue substitutes because of its predictability of Taselisib order structure and robust behavior. All problems that were encountered in this series seemed to be related more to technical errors than to any deficiency in or reaction to the Enduragen. The increased strength, rigidity, and durability give support to the lids comparable to that obtained with autogenous ear cartilage and fascia.”
“Adjusting the inter-particle distances in ordered nanoparticle arrays
can create new nano-devices and is of increasing importance to a number of applications such as nanoelectronics and optical devices. The assembly of negatively charged polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (NPs) on Poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes, quaternized PDMAEMA brushes and Si/PEI/(PSS/PAH)(2), was studied using dip-and spin-coating techniques. By dip-coating, two dimensional (2-D), randomly distributed non-close packed particle arrays were assembled on Si/PEI/(PSS/PAH)(2) and PDMAEMA brushes. The inter-particle NVP-HSP990 concentration repulsion leads to lateral mobility of the particles on these surfaces. The 200 nm diameter
PS NPs tended to an inter-particle distance of 350 to 400 nm (center to center). On quaternized PDMAEMA brushes, the strong attractive interaction between the NPs and the brush dominated, leading to clustering of the particles on the brush surface. Particle deposition using spin-coating at low spin rates resulted in hexagonal close-packed multilayer structures on Si/PEI/(PSS/PAH)(2). Close-packed assemblies with more pronounced defects are also observed on PDMAEMA brushes and QPDMAEMA brushes. In contrast, randomly distributed monolayer NP arrays were achieved at higher spin rates on all polyelectrolyte architectures. The area fraction of the particles decreased with increasing spin rate.”
“BACKGROUND\n\nCocoa products such as dark chocolate and cocoa beverages may have blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties due to their high content of plant-derived flavanols.
Depression and confusion scores improved for the high-adherence group in contrast to worsening for the low-adherence group. Conclusions Results suggest a need for further study of the psychological responses of exercise adherence for patients with heart failure. Clinical Relevance The study indicates the importance of continuous assessment of exercise participation and longer term adherence support
for patients with heart failure.”
“In order to obtain phosphatidylcholine (PC) with higher amount of oleic acid, the interesterification between soybean PC and Camellia oleifera oil (COO) rich in oleic acid catalyzed by lipase was studied in hexane. For this aim three commercially available immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme TLIM and Lipozyme RMIM) were assayed and Novozym SN-38 datasheet 435 was finally selected for further
optimization. The effects of the factors, such as PC concentration, substrate ratio, water amount, lipase dosage and temperature, on the oleic acid content in PC and PC recovery during the interesterification were investigated. The conditions of the interesterification were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were as follows: lipase dosage 13 % (based on the mass of PC and COO), reaction temperature 55 degrees C, water amount 5% (based on the mass of PC), reaction time 8 h, PC concentration 0.3g/mL (PC/hexane), PC-to-COO ratio 1:3 (acyl groups in PC/acyl groups in COO, mol/mol). Under these conditions, oleic acid content and PC recovery were 40.8 +/- 0.5% and 69.0 +/- 2.8%, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the regression BLZ945 models were adequate for predicting the interesterifiction. The orders of reaction variables affecting on oleic acid content and PC recovery were water amount bigger than reaction time bigger than
lipase dosage bigger than reaction temperature, and water amount bigger than reaction temperature bigger than lipase dosage bigger than reaction time, respectively.”
“Aims: CSA-13 is an antimicrobial cationic steroid with some toxicity against eukaryotic cells. The purpose of this work was to test whether this website pluronic acid F-127 could interfere with the toxicity of CSA-13 on human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) without modifying its bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods and Results: The addition of pluronic acid F-127 slightly decreased the number of dead cells after exposure to CSA-13. Pluronic acid F-127 blocked the permeabilizing effect of CSA-13 on the plasma membrane of HUVEC (uptake of ethidium bromide, release of lactate dehydrogenase) without modifying its toxic effect on their mitochondrial function (MTT test, uptake of tetramethyl rhodamine ethyl ester). Conclusion: Pluronic acid F-127 decreased the toxicity of CSA-13 against eukaryotic cells without completely protecting them from mitochondrial damage at high concentrations of the drug.
CD226, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in the majority of NK cells, T cells, monocytes, and platelets, HDAC inhibitor and can be served as a co-stimulator that contributes to multiple innate and adaptive responses. However, there has been no study where either CD226 protein or DNA has been used as an adjuvant for vaccine development
The aim of this study was to develop a novel Ag85A DNA vaccine with CD226 as the genetic adjuvant to increase the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A. Oral vaccination with pcDNA3.1-Ag85A-CD226 DNA induced potent immune responses in mice. CD226 was an effective genetic adjuvant that improved the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A and enhanced the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells in mice. Th1 dominant cytokines (i.e. IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha), cellular immunity (i.e. CD4(+)IFN-gamma T+ cells and CD8(+)IFN-gamma T+ cells in splenocytes) and MLNs were also significantly elevated by pcDNA3.1-Ag85A-CD226 DNA vaccination. Our results suggest that CD226 is an effective adjuvant to enhance the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A. Our findings provide Selleckchem Buparlisib a new strategy for the development of a DNA vaccine co-expressing Ag85A and CD226. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This paper studies the problem of finite-time synchronization control for semi-Markov jump delayed neural networks with
randomly occurring uncertainties. The randomly occurring parameter uncertainties
follow certain mutually uncorrelated Bernoulli distributed white noise sequences. By employing a Markov switching Lyapunov functional and a weak infinitesimal operator, a criterion LY3023414 concentration is obtained to ensure that the resulting error system is stochastically finite-time stable and master system synchronizes with the slave system over a finite-time interval accordingly. Based on this, a clear expression for the desired controller is given by using a simple matrix decoupling. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by employing a simulation example. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C.