In papers reporting a difference in outcome, one year averaged su

In papers reporting a difference in outcome, one year averaged survival was 74% in LVAD recipients compared to 90% in non-bridged patients. Decreased survival is associated with patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy, transplanted within two weeks of LVAD implantation and bridged to transplantation before 2003 as opposed to patients transplanted more check details recently. Based on the available

evidence we conclude that in selected patients survival after heart transplantation in patients bridged with VAD is comparable to those who did not receive the device. (c) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“The exposure to enriched environments allows the maintenance of normal cognitive functioning even in the presence of brain pathology. Up until now, clinical and experimental studies have investigated environmental effects mainly on the symptoms linked to the presence of neuro-degenerative diseases, and no study has yet analyzed whether prolonged exposure to complex environments allows

modifying the clinical expression and compensation of deficits of cerebellar origin. In animals previously exposed to complex stimulations, the effects of cerebellar lesions have been analyzed to verify whether a prolonged and intense exposure to complex stimulations affected the compensation of motor and cognitive functions following a cerebellar lesion. Hemicerebellectomized or intact animals housed in enriched or standard conditions were administered spatial tests. Postural asymmetries and motor behavior were also assessed. Exposure to the enriched environment almost completely compensated the effects of the hemicerebellectomy. In fact, the motor and cognitive performances of the enriched hemicerebellectomized animals were similar to those of the intact animals. The

plastic changes induced by enhanced mental and physical activity seem to provide the development of compensatory responses against the disrupting motor and cognitive consequences of the cerebellar damage.”
“The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the literature and identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in order to answer if performing follicular flushing during the oocyte retrieval may improve the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcomes.

An exhaustive electronic search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Only RCTs comparing follicular flushing to aspiration only during ART, were included. We included 5 trials, with a total of 482 patients randomized, with median ages ranging from 30.5 to 37.1.

The data analyses did not show significant differences regarding live birth rate, clinical pregnancies rates, and the number of oocytes retrieved. The duration of oocyte retrieval was significantly increased in the follicular flushing group.

Results: In normal pregnancies, no correlation was recorded betwe

Results: In normal pregnancies, no correlation was recorded between maternal concentrations of adipocytokines and the above bone biomarkers. In pregnancies with gestational hypertensive disorders, maternal apelin concentrations negatively correlated with NTx ones (r = -0.489, p = 0.034), while maternal visfatin concentrations positively correlated with OPG ones (r = 0.464, p = 0.039).

Conclusions: No associations were found between maternal concentrations of all three studied adipocytokines and respective concentrations of bone biomarkers C59 Wnt in normal pregnancies. By contrast, in pregnancies with gestational hypertensive

disorders, maternal concentrations of apelin and visfatin correlated with respective concentrations of indices of bone turnover. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify these relationships.”
“Thiolene-based microfluidic devices have been coupled with surface plasmon resonance

imaging (SPRI) to provide an integrated platform to study interfacial interactions in both aqueous and organic solutions. In this work, we develop a photolithographic method that interfaces this website commercially available thiolene resin to gold and glass substrates to generate microfluidic channels with excellent adhesion that leave the underlying sensor surface free from contamination and readily available for surface modification through self-assembly. These devices can sustain high flow rates and have excellent solvent compatibility even with several organic solvents. To demonstrate the versatility Stem Cell Compound Library of these devices, we have conducted nanomolar detection of streptavidin-biotin

interactions using in situ SPRI. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3596395]“
“Processed meatball products were packaged in a passive package without oxygen scavenger as 1 control and 3 active packages of which have PP-based oxygen scavenger master batch materials (OSMB) of 40, 80, and 100%(w/w) in the middle layer and stored at 23 and 30 degrees C up to 9 months. Quality changes of packaged products were evaluated by measuring the oxygen concentration of the headspace in containers, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), color, and flavor. The oxygen concentration of the package having 100% OSMB was lower than those of 40 and 80%. The color changes and TBA values of the meat ball in the package containing 100% OSMB were the least among the treatments. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the control showed more flavor change than the packages containing oxygen scavenger. As a result, all active packages could extend the shelf life of the meatball products compared with that of the passive package.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3554623]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554623]“

Pulmonary vein cryoablation (PVC) is a new approach in the treatment of recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF). Computed tomography (CT) can be used to evaluate the left atrium anatomy and PVs dimensions to facilitate the procedure. In radiofrequency procedures, some anatomic variants such as common left (CLPV) or right BMS-754807 research buy (CRPV) PV were reported as factors associated with technical procedure difficulties and potential long-term complications. We hypothesized that the absence of CLPV as determined by CT would predict better AF-free survival after PVC.

Methods and results: We included 118 consecutive patients (mean age 56 +/- 10 years; 77% males) with drug refractory paroxysmal (72%)/persistent (28%) AF, with more than 6 months follow-up, who underwent PVC. On CT scanning images performed within 1 month prior to ablation, we evaluated PV anatomic patterns: presence of CLPV or CRPV. Each patient was evaluated

by 24-hour Holter monitoring within 1 and 3 months and all patients were periodically evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Patients AS1842856 were asked to record their 12-lead electrocardiogram whenever they experienced symptoms suggestive of AF. Recurrence was defined as AF that lasted at least 30 seconds. CLPV was present in 30 (25%) patients and no patients with CRPV were identified. At the end of the 13 months follow-up, patients with normal PVs had significantly better AF-free survival compared to patients with CLPV (67% vs 50%, P = 0.02). The difference was present in patients with paroxysmal AF (P = 0.008) but not in patients with persistent AF (P = 0.92).

Conclusion: In patients undergoing cryoballoon PV isolation for AF, the presence of normal PVs pattern is associated with better AF-free survival as compared to atypical PV anatomy with CLPV, particularly in patients with paroxysmal AF. (PACE 2011; 34: 837-843)”
“The mycobacterial cell envelope has been implicated in the pathogenicity of tuberculosis and therefore has been a prime target for the identification and characterization

of surface proteins with potential application in drug and vaccine development. In this study, the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was screened using Machine Selleckchem EGFR inhibitor Learning tools that included feature-based predictors, general localizers and transmembrane topology predictors to identify proteins that are potentially secreted to the surface of M. tuberculosis, or to the extracellular milieu through different secretory pathways. The subcellular localization of a set of 8 hypothetically secreted/surface candidate proteins was experimentally assessed by cellular fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) to determine the reliability of the computational methodology proposed here, using 4 secreted/surface proteins with experimental confirmation as positive controls and 2 cytoplasmic proteins as negative controls.

“Purpose Our intent was to identify whether cerebrovascula

“Purpose Our intent was to identify whether cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity in diabetic patients is a risk factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Methods One hundred twenty-four diabetic patients undergoing elective CABG were studied and analyzed. Diabetic patients were divided into three groups: normal CO(2) reactivity group (above 5%/mmHg), medium CO(2) reactivity group (between

5 and 3%/mmHg), or Selleckchem IPI145 impaired CO(2) reactivity group (below 3%/mmHg). After the induction of anesthesia and before the start of surgery, cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity was measured for all patients. Hemodynamic parameters (arterial and jugular venous blood gas values) were measured during cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients underwent a battery of neurological and neuropsychological tests the day before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and 6 months after surgery.

Results At 7 days, the rate of cognitive dysfunction in the impaired CO(2) group was higher than in the other three groups (normal, 30%; medium,

25%; impaired, 57%; *P < 0.01 compared with the other groups). In contrast, at 6 months postoperatively, no significant difference in the rate of cognitive dysfunction was found among the three groups. ALK mutation Age, hypertension, CO(2) reactivity, the duration for which jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO(2)) was less than 50%, ascending aorta atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, and insulin therapy were independent predictors of short-term cognitive dysfunction in diabetic patients, and HbA1c, diabetic retinopathy, and insulin therapy were independent predictors of long-term cognitive dysfunction in diabetic patients.

Conclusions We found that impaired cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity was associated with postoperative short-term cognitive dysfunction

in diabetic patients.”
“Dendritic spines form postsynaptic contact sites in the central nervous system. The rapid and spontaneous morphology changes of spines have been widely observed by neurobiologists. Determining the relationship between dendritic spine morphology change and its functional properties such as memory learning is a fundamental yet challenging problem in neurobiology Pfizer Licensed Compound Library high throughput research. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm to track the morphology change of multiple spines simultaneously in time-lapse neuronal images based on nonrigid registration and integer programming. We also propose a robust scheme to link disappearing-and-reappearing spines. Performance comparisons with other state-of-the-art cell and spine tracking algorithms, and the ground truth show that our approach is more accurate and robust, and it is capable of tracking a large number of neuronal spines in time-lapse confocal microscopy images.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Using tolylene

(C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Using tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate

as standard compound, the relationship between -NCO absorbance and concentration was studied with in situ FTIR. The linear relationship appeared correct only for concentrations lower than 0.4 mol L(-1). Then, the urethane reaction kinetics of phenol with tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate were investigated in different solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, cyclohexanone, n-butyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane, and xylene. It showed that solvents largely affected reaction rates. The reaction was largely accelerated in polar solvents, following the order of dimethyl sulfoxide > cyclohexanone > n-butyl acetate > 1,4-dioxane > xylene. It was in contrast to the alcohol-diisocyanate reaction. Finally, an appropriate reaction mechanism was proposed. The H-O bond Fludarabine in phenol was polarized under the influence of solvents, which made the combination of hydrogen to nitrogen and alkoxyl group to carbenium easier. After that the solvent was dissociated and the carbamate generated. The kinetic equation could be derived as v = k’K center dot[S:] [ROH]center dot[R'NCO]. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 580-584, 2012″

pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs and belongs to the P-subfamily. Previous studies have suggested that PGR3 functions in the stabilization of petL operon RNA and also in the translation of petL and one, or some, of the 11 plastid ndh genes encoding subunits of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH). The pgr3-3 allele has been suggested to be specifically defective in the

putative PGR3 function of translation. Herein, we show that the polysome association of the monocistronic petL transcript is impaired in pgr3-3. We detected sequences weakly conserved Vorinostat manufacturer in the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of petL and ndhA, and these putative elements were recognized by recombinant PGR3 in vitro. Previously, pgr3-2 was shown to be specifically defective in stabilizing petL operon RNA and to accumulate NDH at wild-type levels. Consistent with this pgr3-2 phenotype, we show here that a recombinant protein carrying the pgr3-2 mutation in the 12th PPR motif bound to the 5′ UTR of ndhA but not of petL. This indicates that a single amino acid alteration changes the binding specificity of PGR3. In contrast, the recombinant protein carrying the pgr3-3 mutation in the final, 27th, incomplete PPR motif can bind to both petL and ndhA 5′ UTRs, suggesting that the C-terminal end of PGR3 is not required for binding to targets but is essential for translation of petL and probably also ndhA. Our results fully support the model in which PGR3 recognizes two target sequences and is involved in multiple functions, i.e. stabilizing RNA and activating translation.

The histological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma We

The histological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We report an unusual case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma occurring in the sinonasal tract with unilateral abducens nerve palsy presenting as an early feature.”
“This retrospective study aimed to

evaluate the long-term results of the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) procedure performed at our department of bariatric surgery. The 126 consecutive patients treated by LRYGB between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2002 were analyzed in August 2011. Seventy-seven AZD9291 patients (61.1 %), including 18 who had had previous bariatric surgery, were available for evaluation after 9.4 +/- 0.6 years (range, 8.7-10.9 years). Eight patients (10.4 %) suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMII) at the time of surgery. Initial body mass index (BMI) was 40.3 +/- 7.5 kg/m(2) (range, 24.5-66.1 kg/m(2)). There was no postoperative

mortality, but two patients died of causes unrelated to the surgery. Some 9 % of the patients suffered from internal herniation, despite the closure of potential hernia sites. With time, the patients had the tendency to experience weight regain: percentage of excess BMI lost was 56.2 +/- 29.3 % (range, -78.8 to 117.9 %), down IWR-1-endo mouse from a maximum of 88.0 +/- 29.6 % (range, -19.7 to 197.1 %), that had been obtained after a median of 2.0 years (range, 1-8 years). LRYGB was effective for diabetes control in 85.7 % of the affected patients, but, surprisingly, 27.9 % developed new-onset diabetes. The weight regain in this latter patient

group was statistically not different from the nondiabetic group. Conversely, four patients required hospitalization for hypoglycemic syndrome. Two patients underwent reversal of their bypass for problems linked to glucose metabolism (one hypoglycemia, one DMII). Patient quality of life was fair. The patient satisfaction remained good in 76 % of the cases.”
“The past two decades have seen a progressive improvement in the survival rates of preterm infants, especially in neonates <30 weeks of gestational age. These neonates KU-57788 inhibitor constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth, specifically in relation to the charts used. At present the available charts in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth.

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:625-62

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:625-629)”
“Objectives: This study’s aim was to evaluate changes of serum aldosterone concentration after successful cardioversion of persistent AF and to determine the prognostic value of these changes.

Methods: The prospective, single center study included 45 consecutive patients with nonvalvular persistent AF and preserved left ventricular systolic function, selleck chemicals llc referred for cardioversion. None of the patients were taking aldosterone antagonists. Blood samples for aldosterone measurement

were collected twice: 24 hours before and 24 hours after cardioversion.

Results: Forty-three patients were successfully converted to sinus rhythm. On the 30th day following cardioversion, 24 patients

maintained sinus rhythm (group A), 19 patients relapsed to AF (group B). Serum aldosterone concentration before cardioversion did not differ significantly between both groups (175.6 +/- 112.82 pg/mL vs 125.8 +/- 51.2 pg/mL; P = 0.25). However, in group A serum aldosterone level decreased significantly within 24 hours after cardioversion, from 175.6 +/- 112.8 pg/mL to 101.4 +/- 44.2 pg/mL (P = 0.0034). In group B, the aldosterone level before and after cardioversion did not differ significantly (125.8 +/- 51.2 pg/mL vs 118.2 +/- 59.6 pg/mL; P = 0.68). Logistic regression analysis revealed that a decrease in plasma aldosterone concentration after direct current cardioversion more than 13.2 pg/mL MAPK inhibitor predicted sinus rhythm maintenance in a 30-day follow-up, with 87% sensitivity and 64% specificity.

Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between the fall in aldosterone concentration 24 hours after cardioversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm during

30 days of observation. (PACE 2010; 561-565).”
“Migraine is a common neurological disorder of unclear pathogenesis. Recently incompetence of internal jugular vein valve (IJVVI) was found to be associated with some neurological conditions of unknown etiology such as benign cough headache, primary exertional headache or transient global amnesia. Common vascular mechanism linking transiently increased cerebral venous pressure with the above mentioned conditions was then postulated. Therefore we decided to investigate whether IJVVI may be associated with migraine.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of IJVVI and retrograde MK-8776 flow duration in 70 (56 females) migraine patients by color Doppler ultrasound during Valsalva maneuver.

We assessed internal jugular vein valve in 44 patients with migraine without aura (39 female); mean age 37 +/- 9 yrs. and in 26 patients with migraine with typical aura (17 female); mean age 34 +/- 9 yrs. Age- and sex-matched control group consisted of 42 healthy persons (33 female); mean age 32 +/- 1 yrs.

Frequency of the internal jugular vein valve insufficiency was similar in patients with migraine and in the healthy subjects (51% v. 40%, p = 0.26).

Activity of diclofenac hydroxylase was not detected in either Lan

Activity of diclofenac hydroxylase was not detected in either Landrace or Duroc pigs. Breed significantly affected BROD and TBOH activity with BROD being higher in Landrace and TBOH in Duroc pigs. This study improved our understanding of the role of testicular steroids in the regulation of porcine CYP450 activity.”
“Adenoid cystic carcinoma arising from the vulvar sweat glands is a rare malignancy of the female genital tract. We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of sweat glands occurring in the left labia majora of a 52-year-old female patient. The patient underwent radical hemivulvectomy and left inguinal

lymph node dissection with negative surgical Mocetinostat margins and negative inguinal lymph node metastasis. Then, four episodes of combined chemotherapy without further radiotherapy were given. However, the tumor recurred after 3 months. Currently, the patient has been followed up for

2 years with no distant metastasis. According to our experience, although the tumor has a high tendency of local recurrence after resection, an acceptable survival time of the patient can be achieved with primary surgery.”
“Purpose: The Accordion is a novel endoscopic device that prevents retropulsion of ureteral stones and their fragments during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy. We describe our experience with its use focusing on three main endpoints: operating time, fluoroscopy time, and stone-free ACY-738 rates.

Methods: Of 308 consecutive cases of unilateral ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy from 2006-2010, we analyzed 235 cases of ureteral stones. Chart review was performed to document patient demographics (age, sex, and race), stone characteristics (stone size, density, laterality, location, and multiplicity), operative Autophagy inhibitor characteristics (use of preoperative and/or postoperative stents, ureteral balloon dilators, ureteral access sheaths, the Holmium laser, and the Accordion device), and surgical outcomes (operative time,

fluoroscopy time, stone-free status, and complications).

Results: The baseline characteristics between the Accordion and non-Accordion group were statistically similar. In univariate nonparametric tests of medians, Accordion device usage was not associated with a significant reduction in fluoroscopy time (median 1.68 vs. 1.95 minutes, p = 0.28) or operating time (median 52.5 vs. 61 minutes, p = 0.19). However, the stone-free rate for the Accordion group was significantly higher compared to the non-Accordion group (84.2% vs. 53.6%, p = 0.001). In multivariate generalized linear models, Accordion usage was not associated with decreased operating or fluoroscopy times. Accordion use was associated with statistically significant greater odds of stone-free status (odds ratio 4.35, 95% confidence interval 2.36-8.00). Complication severity and rates were comparable between the two groups.

“The effect of loading force, loading rate and unloading r

“The effect of loading force, loading rate and unloading rate on the viscoelastic behavior of three representative polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, amorphous polymer), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF, semicrystalline polymer), and epoxy (crosslinked polymer) have been investigated using nanoindentation.

The results showed that the maximum HM781-36B cost indentation depth increased with the increase of loading force, and the relationship between loading force and depth became linear when the loading force is beyond 3000 mu N. At the beginning, the plasticity index changed substantially with the increase of loading force, and after reaching a critical loading force, the plasticity index almost remained constant. The maximum indentation depth decreased with

the increase of loading rate, which followed a power law curve. With the increase of loading rate, a plasticization phenomenon happened, and a possible reason is that the heat may accumulate and raise the local temperature. The plasticity index initially followed the power law with the increase of unloading rate and then almost remained constant. A constant, the change rate of viscoelastic properties with the unloading rate, for the three representative polymers studied in this research, around -0.033, NU7441 datasheet has been obtained, which may be another manifestation of the phenomenon that many polymers have similar time/temperature shifts and that their WLF equation VS-6063 cell line constants are approximately the same. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 885-890, 2011″
“A neutron diffraction (ND) study at room temperature was carried out on La0.7Ca0.3FeO3 (LCFO). Magnetization studies have described LCFO as a canted-antiferromagnet, with ordering temperature above 400 K. The canting of spins was evident from the field cooled magnetization increasing (FM-like) and, on the other hand, the zero field cooled magnetization decreasing (AFM-like) with decreasing temperature. From the isothermal magnetization, M(H) loop taken at 300 K in applied fields up to 40 kOe, the coercive field (H-c) is around 3 kOe and the remanent moment (M-r) is 0.01 mu(B). Rietveld refinement of the ND pattern

for the crystalline and magnetic structures shows that LCFO crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with space group Pnma, and the magnetic moment observed at room temperature is 2.23 mu(B)/Fe ion. Fe is seemingly between Fe3+(67%) and Fe4+(33%) states with an average valence of 3.3. The Rietveld analysis also shows that the moments are slightly canted in the ab plane in conformity with the magnetization data. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3561159]“
“The phylogeography of cattle genetic variants has been extensively described and has informed the history of domestication. However, there remains a dearth of demographic models inferred from such data. Here, we describe sequence diversity at 37 000 bp sampled from 17 genes in cattle from Africa, Europe and India.

It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from t

It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.”
“Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a rare heterogeneous subset of pluripotent stromal cells that can be easily isolated from different adult tissues, in vitro expanded and differentiated into multiple lineages, are immune privileged and, more important, display immunomodulatory capacities. Because of

this, they are the preferred cell source in tissue-engineered replacements, not only in autogeneic conditions, where they do not evoke any immune response, but especially in the setting of allogeneic organ and tissue replacements. However, more preclinical and clinical studies are requested to completely understand MSCs immune biology and possible clinical applications. We herein review the immunogenicity and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs, their possible mechanisms and potential Belnacasan cost clinical use for tissue-engineered organ and tissue replacement.”
“Transient Selleck MK-0518 epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a recently described, typically misdiagnosed at presentation, distinctive syndrome, characterized by recurrent, brief attacks of memory loss in middle-aged or elderly people, accompanied by significant interictal memory difficulties. We describe the clinical, neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and neuropsychological characteristics of three patients fulfilling the proposed criteria for TEA,

initially referred Etomoxir to our memory clinic for evaluation and treatment of probable dementia. Neuropsychological performance on admission and 6 months after treatment demonstrated a broad range of performance on measures of executive function, lower than expected visuospatial perception, and poor

autobiographical memory. TEA should be included in the differential diagnosis of dementia to avoid misdiagnosis and needless medication. It is a benign and treatable condition, yet the associated decline in autobiographical and remote memory despite antiepileptic therapy poses challenges for further research. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In 2007, an outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) occurred in Turkey. On the basis of clinical investigation, 41 cattle were suspected to have EHD. Reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analyses indicated that the virus belonged to EHD virus serotype 6, thus confirming EHD virus infection of cattle in Turkey.”
“Background: Our recent review of the literature uncovered eleven obesity-specific quality of life questionnaires, all with incomplete demonstration of their measurement properties. Our objective was to validate a new selfadministered questionnaire specific to morbid obesity to be used in clinical trials. The study was carried out at the bariatric surgery clinic of Laval Hospital, Quebec City, Canada.

Methods: This study followed our description of health-related quality of life in morbid obesity from which we constructed the Laval Questionnaire.