6% rate INCB28060 reported in a large systematic review  Little is known on oncologic outcomes of using SEMS as a bridge to elective surgery. A recent paper recommended that surgery should be scheduled shortly after stent insertion because the risk of tumour seeding from
perforation and dislocation of stent . However selection bias of indication and timing of stenting could explain the high level of Semaxanib complications reported with SEMS and consequently the advice of authors regarding long-term survival . Finally there is no study available comparing survival in SEMS versus other surgical options. The cost effectiveness of SEMS is an important parameter as stents are very expensive. It is thought that their cost is offset by the shorter hospital stay and the lower rate of colostomy formation. Two decision analysis studies
from the US and Canada calculated the cost-effectiveness of two competing strategies – colonic stent versus emergency primary resection for OLCC [58, 59] Both concluded that colonic stent followed by elective surgery is more effective and cost efficient than emergency surgery. A small retrospective study from the UK in 1998 showed that palliative stenting compared to surgical decompression allows saving a mean of £1769, whereas the stenting as a bridge to elective resection vs. emergency HP followed by elective reversal saved a mean of £685 . A RCT from Greece comparing SEMS and colostomy for palliation of patients with inoperable malignant CB-839 partial colonic obstruction showed very small difference HSP90 in the costs, with the stent group being 6.9% (132 euros) more expensive per patient . Another study from Switzerland reported SEMS to be 19.7% less costly than surgery . None of these studies incorporated the hidden costs of
stoma bags used in the community. Although stents seem to be cost effective, results are difficult to compare because costs calculations vary in different health care systems, costs differ for palliation and bridge to surgery, and the cost of stents is likely to decrease over time. Recommendation:SEMS should be used as a bridge to elective surgery in referral centre hospitals with specific expertise and in selected patients mainly as their use seems associated with lower mortality rate, shorter hospital stay, and a lower colostomy formation rate (Grade of recommendation 1B). Conclusions This consensus conference aimed to analyze the available scientific evidence on treatment modalities for OLCC and how this is implemented in clinical practice. The goal of the authors was to offer practical and scientifically supported suggestion to manage OLCC. The committee made every effort to collect and classify the best available scientific evidence on treatment of OLCC (Table 2). Subsequently, the audit and panel discussion played a pivotal role in the statement declarations. Table 2 Evidences used for the present Consensus Conference Evidence type C vs. HP HP vs. PRA TC vs. SC SC+ICI vs.