These data suggest that timber production is the most frequent fu

These data suggest that timber production is the most frequent function for smallholder-priority tree species, and the commercial value of timber planting in smallholdings pan-tropically

is confirmed by incomplete economic data for the sector (e.g., teak [Tectona grandis; Roshetko et al., 2013] and acacia [Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis; Fisher and Gordon, 2007] wood production by Indonesian and Vietnamese smallholders, respectively). After timber, our survey of the AFTD suggests medicine and then fuel are the next most important functions. Most tree species listed by the AFTD are indicated to have a range of possible uses in agroforestry systems. Multiple uses illustrate the flexibility in the products and services that agroforestry trees can provide,

which can help support diverse livelihoods CTLA-4 antibody and promote production-system resilience (Garrity, 2004). The environmental services provided by agroforests in parallel (such as erosion control and shade/shelter, as listed in Table 1, as well as global services such as carbon sequestration; Roshetko et al., 2007) with their production functions can be supported by ‘payments for environmental services’ (PES) (Roshetko et al., 2008). Experience shows, however, that more important in determining the tree planting and retention behaviour of farmers is the products they receive directly from trees, not PES (Roshetko et al., 2007). A recent example of the successful adoption of improved agroforestry technologies in Africa is for soil fertility replenishment

(Place et al., 2011). The planting of nitrogen-fixing Megestrol Acetate ‘fertiliser trees’ in the south of the continent to substitute for (or enhance) mineral fertiliser application has resulted in increased staple crops yields, more stable crop production in drought years and improved crop rain-use efficiency (Sileshi et al., 2008 and Sileshi et al., 2012). A recent project in Malawi, for example, encouraged more than 180,000 farmers to plant fertiliser trees, leading to improvements in maize yields, more food secure months per year and greater dietary diversity (CIE, 2011). Further approaches to improve soil fertility in Africa include farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR) of faidherbia (Faidherbia albida) and other leguminous trees, which since 1985 in Niger alone has led to the ‘regreening’ of approximately 5 million hectares ( Sendzimir et al., 2011). FMNR in the Sahel region has resulted in increases in sorghum and millet yields, with greater dietary diversity and improvements in household incomes also observed in some locations ( Bayala et al., 2011 and Place and Binam, 2013). Unlike the wide-scale planting of exotic trees in improved fallows, FMNR is based explicitly on indigenous species, which may better support biodiversity and other associated environmental services ( Haglund et al., 2011).

In this case, the same exposed area might generate different curr

In this case, the same exposed area might generate different current values according to the depth of the fragment in the

root canals, where the reduced volume of the solution tends to limit the ionic conduction between anode and cathode. Consequently, further studies are necessary to investigate the dissolution process of file fragments localized in root canals, considering the depth of the fragment. Future research involving simulated root canals Akt inhibitor and extracted human teeth would more closely simulate the dissolution of a NiTi fractured instrument in situ. The radiographs presented here showed a significant reduction of the fragment length as a result of polarization. However, the dissolution process observed here was less intensive than that presented by Ormiga et al (28). Those authors observed the total consumption of the file’s immersed portion in approximately 50 minutes. This discrepancy might be related to the difference between

the metal areas exposed to the solution in both studies. The total immersion of the file’s tip used by those authors generated a significantly larger area than that of the file’s surface cross section used here. It should be noted that the length of time tested here corresponds to 6 hours and is not clinically practical. Consequently, future studies are necessary to improve the conditions of dissolution. Some modifications in the electrolyte composition Fossariinae and pH as well as in the potential values applied would gamma aminobutyric acid function be able to speed the dissolution process. The conclusion from the results presented here is that it is possible to obtain a significant dissolution of K3 NiTi endodontic instrument fragments by using the method proposed by Ormiga et al (28). The diameter of the surface of fragment exposed to the medium affects the current levels used to promote the dissolution, where

the larger is the diameter of the exposed surface cross section, the higher is the total value of electrical charge. The authors acknowledge the support of COPPETEC Foundation, FAPERJ, and CNPq. The authors deny any conflicts of interest related to this study. “
“Because of a production error, in the article titled “Long-term Survival of Indirect Pulp Treatment Performed in Primary and Permanent Teeth with Clinically Diagnosed Deep Carious Lesions” published in J Endod 2010;36:1490–1493, R.J.M. Gruythuysen, DDS, PhD, and A.J.P. van Strijp, DDS, PhD, were identified as Rene Gruythuysen, DDS, PhD, and Guus van Strijp, DDS, PhD, and some of the authors’ corrections were omitted. The relevant portions are reproduced below with the corrections inserted. As reported in the present study and in other investigations (5, 7), clinical outcomes achieved by IPT, as treatment for asymptomatic pulpal inflammation, were not inferior to those of pulpectomy treatment (15, 19, 21).

8A, even 5 μl of HA/ml did not stimulate reactivation of HIV-1 in

8A, even 5 μl of HA/ml did not stimulate reactivation of HIV-1 in ACH-2 cells, as characterized by western blot analysis see more of the p24 Ag, while a 48 h treatment led to a comparable increase in expression of p24 Ag in cells stimulated with PMA only as well as with PMA and HA. Stimulation of the cells with 10 U/ml of TNF-α led to an even higher expression of p24 Ag, while 1 U/ml induced a relatively smaller expression of p24 Ag. On the other hand, any concentration of phytohemagglutinin A tested (PHA; 0.5, 2.5; 5 μg/ml) alone or in combination with 1 μM ionomycine did not yield a positive signal of p24 Ag in western blot analysis (Fig. 8A and data not

shown). ELISA analysis of culture supernatants revealed similar changes in levels of the p24 antigen as the western blot analysis (Fig. 8B). However, it is obvious that the overall release of p24 by ACH-2 cells stimulated with PMA for 48 h was stronger than by ACH-2 cells stimulated with PMA and HA for the same time period. This effect is possibly due to the death

of the learn more PMA- and HA-stimulated cells or to the inhibitory effects of CO and bilirubin on HIV-1 reactivation as discussed below. The same stimulatory agents were also used for treatment of A2 and H12 cells for 48 h. As shown in Fig. 8C, expression of EGFP was stimulated with HA alone weakly in both cells, very strongly with PMA and even more strongly with PMA and HA. The stimulation with 10 U/ml of TNF-α or 0.5–1 μg/ml PHA was comparable to the effect of PMA, while the stimulation with 1 U/ml TNF-α induced a relatively weaker expression of EGFP. It can be observed that the effect of 1 U/ml TNF-α was comparable to the effect of HA (2.5 μl/ml)

in H12 cells, while it was stronger in A2 cells. The stimulatory effects of individual agents on the expression of EGFP were also studied using flow cytometry (Fig. 8D, Supplementary data Table S3). Again, these results reveal similar tendencies as western blot analysis, but as mentioned above, H12 cells reveal a higher background expression of EGFP in untreated cells than A2 cells, and in general respond with a smaller fold-increase than A2 cells. Based on various criteria used in this analysis, it can be concluded that A2 cells are more responsive to TNF-α than H12 from cells. When analyzing the cell viability, neither PMA nor TNF-α alone or in combination with HA were found to decrease it. On the other hand, PHA reduced cell viability relatively strongly. In addition to the previous studies, we have explored the ability of T-cells to get activated by PMA in the presence of HA. The A3.01 cells were stimulated with PMA and expression of CD69 on the cell surface was determined. In these assays, HA revealed no negative effects on the T-cell activation characterized by this activation marker at any concentration of PMA tested (1 and 10 ng/ml; data not shown), especially not even at the lowest concentration used throughout the experiments (0.5 ng/ml; Fig. 9).

“Des erreurs se sont glissées dans l’article « Évaluation

“Des erreurs se sont glissées dans l’article « Évaluation et amélioration de la qualité microbiologique des antiseptiques préparés à la pharmacie de l’hôpital des spécialités de Rabat », volume 11, numéro 3/2009 d’Antibiotiques. Les affiliations des auteurs n’étaient pas correctes, il fallait lire : S. Derfoufia,*, M. Seffarb, M. Ait El Kadib, B.E. Lmimounic, W. El Melloukic, Y. Bensoudaa a Pharmacie de l’hôpital des spécialités de Rabat, CHU Ibn Sina, Rabat, Maroc b Laboratoire de bactériologie de l’hôpital des spécialités de Rabat, CHU Ibn Sina, Rabat, Maroc c Laboratoire de parasitologie de l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohamed V, Rabat, Maroc Nous prions

nos lecteurs de nous excuser pour cette erreur. “
“The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we demonstrate that the ability to generate quantity implicatures relies upon competence with informativeness, and that previous investigations of the acquisition of implicature confound these two abilities. Competence with informativeness is also necessary for detecting ambiguity in referential communication tasks. It is therefore not coincidental that recent research on implicatures is converging with well-established research on ambiguity detection with respect to the age at which children reach adult-like competence.

Secondly, we challenge the conclusion that children younger than 7 years old lack adult-like competence in this website these tasks. We show that 5-year-old children are in fact aware of underinformativeness, but that they are also tolerant of pragmatic infelicity, and do not penalise it as strictly as logical falsity. In the most widely-used experimental paradigms, this pragmatic

tolerance has led to the eltoprazine misleading conclusion that children are not competent with informativeness. In our first study, we replicate the major finding that children fail with informativeness when a binary judgement task is used. In our second and third studies, we show that young children and adults are sensitive to but tolerant of violations of informativeness. We also show that these findings are not specific to just one type of linguistic expression. In the next section we briefly discuss quantity implicature, informativeness and ambiguity detection, and highlight the common pragmatic competence that underlies them. We then review research on the acquisition of informativeness and spell out the predictions of our novel account, before verifying these experimentally. A fundamental aspect of human communicative competence is the ability to express and infer information beyond what is explicitly said. For example, consider (1) and (2): (1) a. Mary: Did you dance with John and Bill? b. Jane: I danced with John c. Implicature: Jane did not dance with Bill (2) a. Mary: Did all your class fail the test? b. Jane: Some of my class failed c.

Other disciplines such as ecology use thresholds in a similar man

Other disciplines such as ecology use thresholds in a similar manner, but the public may be more familiar with the analogous phrase, tipping point, thanks to Malcolm Gladwell’s 2002 book “The Tipping Point.” Gladwell described a tipping point as the point in time when change in a parameter or system is no longer progressive or linear but instead becomes exponential. In the context of the critical zone

and geomorphology, we can focus on thresholds that are relatively easy to identify, such as exceeding a regulatory level for a specified substance. Examples include mandated total maximum daily load for a river, permissible nitrate concentrations in drinking water, or standards for particulate matter in the atmosphere. Understanding and manipulating the factors that cause a substance to exceed a regulatory level, or learn more predicting the consequences of that exceedance, are typically more difficult, but at least the exceedance is relatively easy to identify. Identification of thresholds that cause the critical zone to move between alternative stable states is more difficult. Obeticholic Acid cost Ecologists define alternative stable states as different

stable configurations that an ecological community can adopt and that persist through at least small perturbations (Beisner et al., 2003). A community can move from one stable state to another by a sufficiently large perturbation applied to state variables such as population density (in this scenario, different states can exist Vitamin B12 simultaneously), or via a change in the parameters that determine the behavior of state variables and the ways they interact with each other (Beisner et al., 2003). As with ecological integrity, the definition of ecological alternative stable states implicitly includes physical and chemical processes, and can easily be broadened to include geomorphic process and form. Wohl and Beckman (in press), for example, describe wood-rich and wood-poor states in forested mountain streams, and quantify thresholds of instream wood load that can cause a stream to move from one persistent, stable state to another. Arguably the most difficult thresholds

to identify, but also the most important, are those that define the limits of sustainability for a species, a biotic community, or a specific resource use by humans. As noted earlier, sustainability is most effectively defined within a specified time interval, but implies the ability to maintain existing conditions during that time interval. Thresholds associated with exceeding sustainability limits unfortunately seem to be most commonly identified once they have been crossed and a species has gone locally or globally extinct, a biotic community has disappeared locally or globally, or a human community can no longer use a resource such as agricultural soils that have eroded or become saline, fisheries that have collapsed, or ground or surface waters that are no longer potable.

Other laboratories have also confirmed the effect of the chronic–

Other laboratories have also confirmed the effect of the chronic–binge EtOH model in mice and rats [32] and [33]. Here we used two animal models, the chronic EtOH model and chronic-binge EtOH model to investigate the effect of RGE for the treatment of ALD. Treatment with RGE improved alcoholic fatty liver and liver injury in both models. Alcohol is primarily metabolized in the liver by oxidative enzymatic breakdown by alcohol dehydrogenase. In addition, the microsomal electron transport system also regulates alcohol metabolism via catalysis by CYP2E1. CYP2E1 expression is

induced during chronic alcohol consumption, and results in the formation of ROS and free radicals [3] and [4]. CYP2E1 also promotes the formation of highly reactive aldehydes, including acetaldehyde, 4-HNE, Selleck INCB018424 and MDA, which can Ribociclib price form protein adducts. In the current study, we measured the CYP2E1 protein level through western blot (Fig. 4C) and 4-HNE and nitrotyrosine protein adducts, two major products of ROS and reactive nitrogen species, respectively, by immunohistochemistry (Fig. 4 and Fig. 7). Treatment of mice with RGE was capable of inhibiting CYP2E1 induction caused by chronic alcohol

consumption. In addition, 4-HNE-positive cells and nitrotyrosine-immunoreactive cells were significantly reduced after treatment with RGE. Thus, the beneficial effect of RGE against alcohol-induced fat accumulation and liver injury may be mediated, at least in part, through the inhibition of oxidative stress. In recent years, several novel mechanisms regulating the pathogenesis of ALD have been described. Chronic alcohol ingestion in animal models is associated with impairment of the hepatic AMPK/Sirt1 axis, a central signaling pathway regulating energy metabolism [14] and [34]. The activation of AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in liver has been found to increase fatty acid oxidation and repress lipogenesis, primarily by modulating activity of SREBP-1 or PPARγ coactivator-α/PPARα [35] and [36]. Here, we confirmed that AMPK phosphorylation was significantly Buspirone HCl decreased after alcohol administration. Treatment of alcohol-fed mice with RGE restored AMPKα and ACC phophorylation

levels (Fig. 5). Moreover, treatment of AML12 cells with RGE and ginsenosides resulted in a complete recovery of the Sirt1 and PPARα suppression induced by EtOH (Fig. 8 and Fig. 9). Consistent with this, RGE and ginsenosides inhibited EtOH-induced SREBP-1 expression and fat accumulation as evidenced by Oil red O staining in AML12 cells. These results indicate that the effect of RGE on alcoholic fatty liver and liver injury may be due to improvement of homeostatic lipid metabolism in the liver. In summary, our present study demonstrated for the first time that RGE and major ginsenosides efficaciously ameliorated alcohol-induced fatty liver and liver injury through improving hepatic energy metabolism and prevention of oxidative stress.

6% vs 23 6%, p < 0 001) The training of staff in BFPCI has been

6% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.001). The training of staff in BFPCI has been an important strategy for the implementation of this initiative. Caldeira et al., 17 in a controlled study in Minas Gerais, randomized ten units to be trained in BFPCI and ten to constitute the control group, demonstrating the impact of this strategy on the median duration of EBF.

The effects of BFPCI have also been observed on children’s health. Cardoso et al. 18 conducted a study in a basic health unit in Rio de Janeiro comparing pre- and post-certification in BFPCI, and observed an increase in the prevalence of EBF, an increase in routine consultations with asymptomatic infants, and a reduction of consultations whose chief complaint was diarrhea or respiratory infection. Maternal work outside the house was proven to be a risk factor for EBF weaning: it was the variable with the highest intensity of association with the outcome. This result was consistent with that found by CAL 101 Damião19 in Rio de Janeiro, where maternal employment decreased the likelihood of EBF in children younger than 4 months by 41%. Moreover, in a cohort study performed in Pelotas, maternal work increased the likelihood selleck of EBF interruption at 3 months in 76%.20 In 2009, the Family Health

Strategy was beginning to be structured and implemented in the city of Rio de Janeiro, covering only 3.5% of the population, the worst coverage among Brazilian capitals. In 2012, this strategy covered Racecadotril 35% of Rio de Janeiro’s population (approximately 2.2 million people), with massive investments in training of professionals in BFPCI.8 These circumstances may be one of the factors that led the basic health units to generate a prevalence of EBF 10.4% higher than that of the family health units. The assistance provided by the maternity ward staff to teach mothers how to nurse showed no significant association with the outcome. However, a limitation of this study was that this assistance was categorized according to maternal perception; hospital identification was not available, and therefore it was not possible to characterize them as a Baby-Friendly Hospital, a criterion used in other studies to assess the quality of hospital assistance to

promote breastfeeding.21 and 22 In addition to this hypothesis of information bias, another source of explanation for the lack of association observed is that the mothers with more difficulty in the process of establishing breastfeeding in the maternity may have been the target of more encouragement to breastfeed, and these problems with breastfeeding may have continued after the discharge, impairing EBF. Another limitation to be highlighted was the impossibility of controlling for other variables associated with EBF according to the literature, such as maternal characteristics: education, age, primiparity,22 child’s birth weight,23 gender,24 family income,20 and living conditions,25 as in the present study these variables were not collected.

Patients were selected consecutively at the outpatient clinic of

Patients were selected consecutively at the outpatient clinic of HG, from Monday through Friday, from 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM, and from the hospital admission and emergency unit of the Hospital Universitário on the other days Duvelisib cost and times. Fig. 1 shows the flowchart of patient selection, investigation, and follow-up of patients. Samples drawn from each nostril aspirate and one from nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained

from all patients enrolled in the study, in the supine position with head positioned on the midline. At the time of collection, the sample swab was submitted to the rapid test for detection of influenza A, H1N1, and B (Influenza H1N1 Pandemic test, Bioeasy, Brazil). The result was reported immediately to the physician for treatment decision. Within a maximum period of 4 hours after collection, the

samples were mixed and added to a Ringer lactate solution to a total of 4 mL. After homogenization, the samples (approximately 1 mL) were separated into aliquots in cryotubes, previously identified and stored in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. In the Pediatric Infectious Disease Research Laboratory of the FMJ, the DNA and total RNA nucleic acids were extracted from samples using the extraction Kit (RTP DNA/ RNA Virus Mini Kit, Molecular, STRATEC, Germany). The sensitivity and specificity were monitored by standard quality control for molecular diagnostics. The qualitative detection of 20 respiratory viruses (influenza [A, H1N1, and B]; coronavirus [NL63, Caspase-independent apoptosis 229E, OC43, and HKU1]; parainfluenza [PIV1, 2, 3, and 4]; rhinovirus [HRV], respiratory syncytial virus [RSV A/B]; human Histamine H2 receptor metapneumovirus [hMPV A/B]; adenovirus [ADV]; enterovirus; parechovirus; and bocavirus [hBoV]) was performed by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD – Fast Track Diagnostics – Belgium). All blood cultures (peripheral and central samples) were performed using the kit BACTEC/Alert (BioMérieux Inc. -United States). Urinalysis and urine culture were obtained on admission, as well as other cultures from different sites, if necessary. Analysis of peripheral blood was performed

by automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex®, Model: KX 21N, USA) within 2 hours after collection. All laboratory investigations strictly followed the manufacturers’ specifications. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to describe the study sample. The prevalence of viral infections with their respective 95% confidence interval was estimated. To compare proportions, the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests were used. The software used was SPSS, release 17 (SPSS – Chicago, IL, United States). A total of 48 patients undergoing cancer treatment agreed to participate in the study, totaling 104 episodes with fever and/or respiratory symptoms. The median age was 12 ± 5.1 years, and the youngest patient was 1 year old. The sample consisted of 82 (78.8%) male children; 82 (78.8%) were white, followed by 17 mixed-race (16.

But the proliferation of OI types to reflect each gene separately

But the proliferation of OI types to reflect each gene separately, supported buy PS-341 by some, has become more confusing than useful in clinical practice. For these reasons, in 2009 the Nosology Group of the International Society of Skeletal Dysplasias recommended maintaining the classification

of Sillence as the prototypical and universally accepted form to classify the degree of OI severity, and freeing it from direct molecular reference.35 Thus, as shown in Table 3, OI was grouped into five clinical categories, and the several genes that can cause OI were listed separately. In the present study, the genes IFITM5, SERPINF1, BMP1, WNT1, TMEM38B, and PLS3 were added to the original table, as they were discovered after its publication. In practice, in spite of the complex genotypic variability of OI demonstrated in recent years, its phenotypes are still classified according to Sillence. Genotypic

investigation should be indicated, especially in cases suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance, aimed at genetic counseling. The molecular study should be performed using Sanger sequencing of the several new genes, or by next-generation sequencing. Exome sequencing is useful when there is no panel of available genes, or when the involved genes are not known. CNPq (Conselho GDC 0199 Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico). The authors declare no conflicts of interest. To the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the post-doctoral

grant given to Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares in 2013 in the Genetics Sector of the Pediatric Clinic of Freiburg University, Germany, to develop the project “Investigation of osteogenesis imperfecta through the analysis of known genes and new candidate genes in Brazilian and German patients”, under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Bernhard Zabel, Dr. Pablo Villavicencio Lorini, and Dr. Ekkehart Lausch, remarkable individuals. “
“Asthma is a chronic, genetically-determined disease, whose prevalence in the pediatric population ranges between 19.0% and 24.3% among brazilian adolescents and schoolchildren, respectively.1 From the physiopathological viewpoint, it is characterized PLEKHB2 by chronic inflammation with the involvement of several cell types, associated with airway hyperresponsiveness, with episodes of reversible airflow limitation. It is clinically manifested by recurrent exacerbations, also called “asthma attacks” or, more appropriately, acute asthma, characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, or a combination of these.2 The loss of clinical and functional asthma control usually occurs gradually, but it can occur abruptly in a subgroup of patients.

Each catheter was fixed

with a surgical suture At the en

Each catheter was fixed

with a surgical suture. At the end of experiment, animals were sacrificed by resection of the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, M. gastrocnemius and small intestine under deep isoflurane anesthesia. In the main setting we compared three experimental groups. One group (n = 14) received PFD-filled PLGA microcapsules (1.5 µm), one group (n = 9) was medicated with a sterile solution of 0.25% PVA (maximum possible concentration of PVA remainder from capsule synthesis) and one group (n = 9) was treated with 0.9% NaCl. All solutions were infused continuously for 30 min into the right femoral vein using a syringe pump (20 ml/kg body weight × h). The total volume of 20 ml/kg body weight was chosen, because this is a typical volume (5–30 ml/kg body weight) for studies with oxygen carriers [ 2, 14]. The short infusion Ulixertinib cell line time of 30 min was selected as pre-hospital treatment of trauma or other severely injured patients (the potential target population for artificial oxygen carriers) should not exceed 30–40 min [ 15, 16]. After the stop check details of infusion, 12 animals were monitored for 4 h. As high blood volumes were required for determination of cytokines and complement factors, for 20 animals the main setting was shortened from 270 to 150 min and 90 min, respectively (NaCl and PVA each n = 3

and PFD-filled PLGA microcapsules 1.5 µm n = 4 for both time points). The frozen section procedure (see below) was performed in an additional setting only slightly differing from the main setting (see section frozen section procedure) with 2 groups, one receiving 1 µm PFD-filled PLGA microcapsules (n = 2) and 5-FU mw one receiving 1.5 µm PFD-filled PLGA microcapsules (n = 2). For the assessment

of hepatic microcirculation, in vivo microscopy (intravital microscopy, IVM) was performed in an extra, independent setting (see section in vivo microscopy) with 4 groups: PFD-filled PLGA microcapsules (1 and 1.5 µm), PLGA microspheres (1.5 µm) and 0.9% NaCl each n = 6. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously via the femoral artery catheter that was connected to a pressure transducer and displayed on a monitor. Ringer solution was delivered at 3 ml/h to keep the catheter functional. Heart rates were determined from systolic blood pressure spikes. The breathing rate was determined by counting the ventilation movements per minute every 10 min. The core body temperature of the rats was continuously monitored using a rectal sensor; cooling below 37 °C was prevented by both an underlying thermostat-controlled operating table and by covering the animals with aluminum foil. Blood samples (0.5 ml) for both blood gas analysis and the monitoring of released enzymes activities in plasma in the main setting (see study groups) were taken from the femoral artery catheter before the start of infusion (after catheterization of A.