, 1829/2003 and Commission Regulation (EC) No., 1830/2003). However, the continuous enforcement of this legislation is complex for several reasons. First of all, the number (around 30 to 120 GMOs) and the diversity (2 to 15 genes) of commercialised GMOs will increase significantly in the 5 coming years ( Stein & Rodriguez-Cerezo, 2009). Y 27632 Moreover, numerous vectors will be used, such as the pBin19, pBI121, pPZP and pCAMBIA families ( Komori et al., 2007). Second, in addition to genes conferring insect resistance or herbicide tolerance, a larger
range of traits will be developed (e.g., abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance and nutritional allegations). Third, the present commercialised GM crops are principally
developed by American and EU companies which have a major interest in being authorised to commercialise their products on the EU market. Nevertheless, in 2015, more and more GMOs intended for local consumption will be developed by Asian technological centres. These GM crops are unlikely to be submitted for EU approval. Thus, it is very likely that the frequency of unauthorised mTOR inhibitor GMOs on the EU market will significantly increase by their accidental (or adventitious) presence in raw materials and processed food or feed ( Stein & Rodriguez-Cerezo, 2009). In addition, the possible escape of GMOs from field-trials or during development stages could also be another source of unauthorised GMOs ( Holst-Jensen et al., 2012 and Zapiola et al., 2008). Indeed, although the presence of GM rice
is to date not authorised on the EU market, the herbicide tolerant LLRice601, in 2004, and the insect resistant Bt Shanyou ever 63, in 2006, and KeFeng-6, in 2010, have been detected in food products imported from China ( Commission Implementing Decision No., 2011, Stein and Rodriguez-Cerezo, 2009 and Wang et al., 2011). In 2012, more than 50% of the GMOs detected in food/feed matrices, reported in the RAPID Alert System Database, concerned unauthorised GM rices imported from Asia, mainly China ( RASFF portal). To address the increasing number of alerts, the EU commission decided to implement “Emergency measures regarding unauthorised genetically modified rice in rice products originating from China and repealing Decision 2008/289/EC” ( Commission Implementing Decision no. 2011/884/EU). To ensure an efficient GMO detection in food and feed products on the EU market, several screening methods have been developed, mainly based on the most common recombinant elements in GM crops like transcription-regulating sequences. These elements are p35S (Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter) and tNOS (Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator) ( Barbau-Piednoir et al., 2010).