They left scatters of artifacts and faunal remains near ancient l

They left scatters of artifacts and faunal remains near ancient lakes and streams,

including the remains of freshwater fish, crocodiles, hippos, turtles, and other aquatic animals scavenged or caught in shallow water. There is also evidence Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor for aquatic and marine resource use by H. erectus and H. neandertalensis, including abundant fish and crab remains found in a ∼750,000 year old Acheulean site (Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov) in Israel ( Alperson-Afil et al., 2009) and several Mediterranean shell middens created by Neanderthals (e.g., Cortés-Sánchez et al., 2011, Garrod et al., 1928, Stiner, 1994, Stringer et al., 2008 and Waechter, 1964). Recent findings in islands in Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean also suggest that H. erectus and Neanderthals may even have had some seafaring capabilities ( Ferentinos et al., 2012, Morwood et al., 1998 and Simmons, 2012). The intensity of marine and aquatic resource use appears to increase significantly with the appearance of Homo sapiens ( Erlandson, 2001, Erlandson, 2010a, McBrearty and Brooks, 2000, Steele, 2010 and Waselkov, 1987:125). The earliest evidence for relatively intensive use of marine resources by AMH dates back to ∼164,000 years

ago in South Africa, where shellfish were collected and other marine vertebrates were probably scavenged by Middle Stone Age (MSA) peoples ( Marean et al., 2007). Evidence for widespread coastal foraging is also found in many other MSA sites in South Africa dated from ∼125,000 to 60,000 years ago (e.g., Klein, 2009, Klein selleck inhibitor and Steele, 2013, Klein et al., 2004, Parkington, 2003, Singer and Wymer, 1982 and Steele and Klein, 2013). Elsewhere, evidence for marine resource use by H. sapiens is still relatively limited during late Pleistocene times, in part because rising seas have submerged shorelines dating between about 60,000 and 15,000 years ago. However, shell middens and fish remains between ∼45,000 and 15,000 years old have been found at several sites in Southeast Asia and western Melanesia (e.g., Allen et al., 1989, O’Connor et al., 2011 and Wickler and Spriggs, Loperamide 1988), adjacent to coastlines with steep bathymetry that limited

lateral movements of ancient shorelines. The first clear evidence for purposeful seafaring also dates to this time period, with the human colonization of Island Southeast Asia, western Melanesia, the Ryukyu Islands between Japan and Taiwan, and possibly the Americas by maritime peoples ( Erlandson, 2010b and Irwin, 1992). Freshwater shell middens of Late Pleistocene age have also been documented in the Willandra Lakes area of southeastern Australia ( Johnston et al., 1998), and evidence for Pleistocene fishing or shellfishing has been found at the 23,000 year old Ohalo II site on the shore of the Sea of Galilee ( Nadel et al., 2004), along the Nile River ( Greenwood, 1968), and in many other parts of the world (see Erlandson, 2001 and Erlandson, 2010a).

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