Real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the BCR/AB

Real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that the BCR/ABL levels in miR-23-atransfected cells were lower than those in the control groups. Ectopic expression of miR-23a in K562 cells led to cellular senescence. Moreover, when K562 cells were treated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, BCR/ABL expression was upregulated, which indicates epigenetic silencing of miR-23a in leukemic cells. BCR/ABL and miR-23a expressions were inversely related to CML, and BCR/ABL expression was regulated by miR-23a in

leukemic cells. The epigenetic silencing of miR-23a led to derepression of BCR/ABL expression, and consequently contributes Selleck LY2835219 to CML development and progression.”
“Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major pathogen in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis biofilm formation in the subgingival crevice plays an important role in the ability of the bacteria to tolerate stress signals outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Some bacteria use a distinct subfamily of sigma factors to regulate their extracytoplasmic functions (the ECF subfamily). The objective

of this study was to determine if P. gingivalis ECF sigma factors affect P. gingivalis biofilm formation. Methods: To elucidate the role of ECF sigma factors in P. gingivalis, chromosomal mutants carrying a disruption of each ECF sigma factor-encoding gene were constructed. Bacterial FK228 growth curves were measured by determining the turbidity of bacterial cultures. The quantity of biofilm growing on plates was evaluated by crystal violet staining. Results: Comparison of the growth curves of wild-type P. gingivalis strain 33277 and the ECF mutants indicated that the growth rate of the mutants was slightly lower than that of the wild-type strain. The PGN_0274- and PGN_1740-defective mutants had increased biofilm formation compared with the wild-type (p smaller than 0.001); however, the other ECF sigma factor mutants or the complemented strains did not enhance

biofilm formation. Conclusion: These results suggest that PGN_0274 and PGN_1740 play a key role in biofilm formation by P. this website gingivalis.”
“. This paper aims to demonstrate that knowledge-based hybrid learning algorithms are positioned to offer better performance in comparison with purely empirical machine learning algorithms for the automatic classification task associated with the diagnosis of a medical condition described as pulmonary embolism (PE). The main premise is that there exists substantial and significant specialized knowledge in the domain of PE, which can readily be leveraged for bootstrapping a knowledge-based hybrid classifier that employs both the explanation-based and the empirical learning.

2%, 41 7%, and 4 1%, respectively Conclusions: The mean SBH is t

2%, 41.7%, and 4.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The mean SBH is the highest in the area of the anterior border of the sinus; it declines significantly toward the posterior maxilla, reaches its minimum in the area of the first molar, and increases again significantly in the second molar region. From a clinical point of view, the lateral window technique of sinus elevation remains the dominant augmentative procedure in the molar area, whereas in the premolar area, less invasive alternative methods may be more appropriate. INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2012;27:48-54″
“(Leaf functional traits in sun and shade leaves of gallery forest trees in Distrito Federal, Brazil). Gallery forest is a forest formation that covers

about 10% of the cerrado biome and represents

about 1/3 of cerrado tree diversity in Brazil. Recent studies demonstrate the importance of gallery forest in central AZD6094 molecular weight regions of Brazil, but little is known about the physiology and plasticity of gallery forest species in relation to environmental variability, particularly in terms of light availability. In this study we compared in situ physiological and nutritional aspects of shade and sun leaves, in ten tree species commonly found in gallery forests. Relative to shade leaves, Selleckchem PD98059 sun leaves had higher values of CO(2) assimilation rates on an area basis (A(area)), of stomatal conductance (gs), of quantum yield of Photosystem II (Phi(PSII)); and a larger fraction of PSII centers in the open state (q(L)), while shade leaves showed higher specific leaf area However, shade and sun leaves did not differ in terms of leaf water potential. CO(2) assimilation on a mass basis and in leaf concentrations

of macronutrients. Phi(PSII) and gs were the main factors that influenced A(area) sun leaves, while only Phi(PSII) significantly affected A(area) shade leaves. The differences found here demonstrate that, like in other forest formations worldwide, gallery forest trees are able to acclimate to contrasting irradiance levels that typically occur in this type of environment.”
“Aim: To examine the electrophysiological effects of sophocarpine on action potentials (AP) and ionic currents of cardiac myocytes and to compare some of these effects with those of amiodarone.\n\nMethods: selleckchem Langendorff perfusion set-up was used in isolated guinea pig heart, and responses to sophocarpine were monitored using electrocardiograph. Conventional microelectrode, voltage clamp technique and perforated patch were employed to record fast response AP (fAP), slow response AP (sAP) and ionic currents in guinea pig papillary muscle or rabbit sinus node cells.\n\nResults: Tachyarrhythmia produced by isoprenaline (15 mu mol/L) could be reversed by sophocarpine (300 mu mol/L). Sophocarpine (10 mu mol/L) decreased the amplitude by 4.0%, maximal depolarization velocity (V(max)) of the fAP by 24.4%, and Na(+) current (I(Na)) by 18.0%, while it prolonged the effective refractory period (ERP) by 21.1%.

Hybrids between farm escapes and established trout were present i

Hybrids between farm escapes and established trout were present in all rivers at frequencies ranging between 7 and 69%, and population admixture was positively correlated with genetic diversity. We suggest that non-native salmonids introduced into the Southern Hemisphere could benefit from admixture because local adaptations may

not have yet developed, and there may be initially little fitness loss resulting from outbreeding depression.”
“Background: Studies have tried to link obesity rates and physical activity with multiple aspects of the built environment. Purpose: To determine the relation between residential property values and selleck products multiple perceived (self-reported) measures of the obesogenic environment. Methods: The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) used a telephone survey

of a representative, geographically distributed sample Of 2,001 King County adults, collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Home addresses were geocoded. Residential property values at the tax parcel level were obtained from the King County tax assessor. Mean residential property values within a 10-minute walk (833-m buffer) were calculated for each respondent. Data on multiple perceived measures of the obesogenic environment were collected by self-report. Correlations and multi-variable linear regression analyses, stratified by residential density, were used to examine the associations among perceived environmental measures, property values, and BMI. Results: Perceived measures of the environment such as crime, heavy traffic, and proximity to bars, liquor stores, selleck screening library and fast food were all associated with lower property values. By contrast, living in neighborhoods that were perceived as safe, quiet, clean, and attractive was associated this website with higher property values. Higher property values were associated, in turn, with lower BMIs among women. The observed associations between perceived environment measures and BMI were largely attenuated after accounting for residential property values.

Conclusions: Environments perceived as obesogenic are associated with lower property values. Studies in additional locations need to explore to what extent other perceived environment measures can be reflected in residential property values. (C) 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine”
“To determine the differences between brown adipocytes from interscapular brown tissue (iBAT) and those induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) with respect to their thermogenic capacity, we examined two essential characteristics: the dynamics of mitochondrial turnover during reversible transitions from 29 degrees C to 4 degrees C and the quantitative relationship between UCP1 and selected subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complex in the fully recruited state.

Crude protein and fat content increased

Crude protein and fat content increased MX69 with increasing number of days germinated, but germination caused a decrease in starch content. Dehulling also increased the crude protein and fat content of the seeds. All treatments caused a significant decrease in condensed tannins of the soybeans. Trypsin inhibitor levels were numerically lower after germinating, soaking and dehulling of seeds, but not significantly so. There were no changes in IVPD after treatment of the soybeans. It was concluded

that germination for a period of three days effectively improved the nutritional value of soybeans and can be considered an alternative treatment of soybeans for the small-scale farmer where heat treatment is impractical or impossible.”
“The biodistributions

learn more and in vivo kinetics of chemically prepared neoglycoproteins have been examined previously and are reviewed here. A variety of mono-and oligosaccharides may be conjugated onto a protein surface using chemical methods. The kinetics and organ-specific accumulation profiles of these glycoconjugates, introduced through intravenous injection, have been analyzed using conventional dissection studies as well as noninvasive methods, such as SPECT, PET, or fluorescence imaging. These studies have revealed glycan-dependent protein distribution kinetics that may be useful for pharmacological and diagnostic applications.”
“Background: Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV-IE) is a baculovirus recently identified in our laboratory, with high pathogenicity to the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Walker, 1858). In Brazil, the C. includens caterpillar is an emerging pest and has caused significant losses in soybean and cotton crops. The PsinSNPV genome Dinaciclib nmr was determined and the phylogeny of the p26 gene within the family Baculoviridae was investigated. Results: The complete genome of

PsinSNPV was sequenced (Roche 454 GS FLX – Titanium platform), annotated and compared with other Alphabaculoviruses, displaying a genome apparently different from other baculoviruses so far sequenced. The circular double-stranded DNA genome is 139,132 bp in length, with a GC content of 39.3 % and contains 141 open reading frames (ORFs). PsinSNPV possesses the 37 conserved baculovirus core genes, 102 genes found in other baculoviruses and 2 unique ORFs. Two baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) homologs, bro-a (Psin33) and bro-b (Psin69), were identified and compared with Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV) and Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus (TnSNPV) bro genes and showed high similarity, suggesting that these genes may be derived from an ancestor common to these viruses. The homologous repeats (hrs) are absent from the PsinSNPV genome, which is also the case in ChchNPV and TnSNPV. Two p26 gene homologs (p26a and p26b) were found in the PsinSNPV genome.

gov was performed to identify randomized controlled trials The p

gov was performed to identify randomized controlled trials. The primary outcomes were trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (reported pre-bronchodilator values) and exacerbation rate. Secondary outcomes included other spirometric parameters, health-related quality of life, the overall mortality rate and adverse events. Weighted mean differences (WMDs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled using a random effects model. Results: Eleven trials involving 9675 patients met the inclusion criteria. Roflumilast significantly reduced the mean exacerbation rate (mild, moderate or severe) (WMD = -0.23; 95% Cl = -0.33 to -0.13;

p smaller than 0.00001) and improved trough FEV1 (WMD = 53.52 ml; 95% CI = 42.49 to 64.55; p smaller than 0.00001), and other post-bronchodilator spirornetric parameters (e.g., forced vital capacity, etc.). Roflumilast did not improve St George’s Respiratory APR-246 supplier Questionnaire total score (WMD = -0.70 units; 95% CI = -2.65 to 1.26; p = 0.49) and decrease the overall mortality rate (RR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.29; p = 0.56). Roflumilast increased some adverse events including diarrhea, headache, nausea, weight loss, and insomnia. Conclusions: Roflumilast significantly

reduces the mean exacerbation rate in COPD patients. Although there are insufficient clinical evidence on other clinical endpoints and high risk of some adverse events, roflumilast therapy may benefit COPD patients. Further studies are needed to pay more attention to the long-term Selleck Fludarabine GPCR Compound Library ic50 efficacy and safety of roflumilast. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Amoebae serve as hosts for various intracellular bacteria, including human pathogens. These microbes are able to overcome amoebal defense mechanisms and successfully establish a niche for replication, which is usually the cytoplasm. Here, we report on the discovery of a bacterial

symbiont that is located inside the nucleus of its Hartmannella sp. host. This symbiont, tentatively named ‘Candidatus Nucleicultrix amoebiphila’, is only moderately related to known bacteria (similar to 90% 16S and 23S rRNA sequence similarity) and member of a novel clade of protist symbionts affiliated with the Rickettsiales and Rhodospirillales. Screening of 16S rRNA amplicon data sets revealed a broad distribution of these bacteria in freshwater and soil habitats. ‘Candidatus Nucleicultrix amoebiphila’ traffics within 6 h post infection to the host nucleus. Maximum infection levels are reached after 96-120 h, at which time point the nucleus is pronouncedly enlarged and filled with bacteria. Transmission of the symbionts occurs vertically upon host cell division but may also occur horizontally through host cell lysis. Although we observed no impact on the fitness of the original Hartmannella sp. host, the bacteria are rather lytic for Acanthamoeba castellanii.

pylori Activation of the RAGE/multiligand axis is thought to be

pylori. Activation of the RAGE/multiligand axis is thought to be a relevant factor in cancer-mediated inflammation. RAGE is a membrane receptor, belonging to the immunoglobulin family, and the over-expression of RAGE has been associated with increased invasiveness and metastasis generation in different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. Furthermore recent experiences show that the use of its soluble form (sRAGE) or silencing of the gene coding for this receptor could provide therapeutic benefits in cancer. Aim: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of RAGE, MUC-1, beta-Catenin free and phosphorylated, Cyclin-D 1 and GSK3 in gastric biopsy specimens infected

GSK1210151A solubility dmso with H. pylori. Material and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out in gastric biopsies from 138 patients: 55 with inflammatory injury (no atrophic gastritis), 42 with pre-cancerous conditions. (atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 41 with dysplastic

lesions or in situ adenocarcinoma. Results: There was a high rate of positive RAGE expression Pinometostat concentration in the three groups of biopsies. Biopsies with dysplasia or in situ carcinoma had a significantly higher percentage of RAGE expression than the other groups of biopsies. Conclusions: The increased RAGE expression reported in both dysplasia and incipient cancer support the role of the multiligand/RAGE axis in gastric carcinogenesis.”
“Background: Vitamin D receptor(VDR), Th17 related CC chemokine receptor 6(CCR6), Treg related Foxp3 and CD8+T related granzyme B(GrB) contributed to the development of many autoimmune diseases. However, there are no available data addressing the expression of these mRNA of these proteins in the muscles in idiopathic inflammatory

myopathy (IIM) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). Methods: We have evaluated the levels of 4 mRNAs including VDR, CCR6, Foxp3, GrB in the muscle and muscle related enzymes in the blood of 14 patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, 4 patients with LGMD2B and 7 controls who did not have histopathological signs of any muscle diseases. Results: The expressions of all measured mRNAs and muscle related enzymes were highest in IIM. The mRNA levels in LGMD2B were also higher than those in the controls. A significant difference of VDR mRNA expression was observed between IIM selleck screening library and LGMD2B. Conclusions: Th17, Treg, CD8+T are involved in the development of IIM and LGMD2B. The elevation of VDR expression may provide us with clues as a potential therapy to treat these diseases.”
“Propranolol, as a non-selective blocker of the beta-adrenergic receptor (AR), is utilised as the first-line treatment for infantile hemangiomas. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the molecular basis of propranolol on the regression of infantile hemangiomas using a proliferating infantile hemangioma-derived endothelial cell line.

The rs1131878C bigger than T polymorphism (NT_016354 20: g 1055

The rs1131878C bigger than T polymorphism (NT_016354.20: g.10558805C bigger than T) in UGT2B4 was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Compared to the C/C genotype, the C/T genotype conferred 1.39 times higher the pancreatic cancer risk (95% CI = 1.09-1.77; P = 0.007), and the T/T genotype conferred 2.97 times higher the pancreatic cancer risk (95% CI = 1.24-7.08; P = 0.014). In contrast, compared with the A/A genotype, the A/C genotype at the rs3822179 locus Selleck APR-246 in UGT2B4 (NT_016354.20: g.10569096C bigger than A) bestowed a 20% risk reduction

(OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95; P = 0.011). However, the risk was not significantly AZD8186 concentration reduced with the C/C genotype (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.52-1.14, P = 0.191). Polymorphisms in UGT2B4 affect the risk of pancreatic cancer occurrence in Han Chinese individuals.”
“Ceramides are known to be key players in intracellular signaling and are involved in apoptosis, cell senescence, proliferation, cell growth and differentiation. They are synthesized by ceramide synthases

(CerS). So far, six different mammalian CerS (CerS1-6) have been described. Recently, we demonstrated that human breast cancer tissue displays increased activity of CerS2, 4, and 6, together with enhanced generation of their products, ceramides C-16:0, C-24:0, and C-24:1. Moreover, these increases were significantly associated with tumor dignity. To clarify the impact of this observation, we manipulated cellular ceramide levels by overexpressing C188-9 clinical trial ceramide synthases 2, 4 or 6 in MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HCT-116 (colon cancer) cells, respectively. Overexpression of ceramide synthases 4 and 6 elevated generation of short chain ceramides C-16:0, C-18:0 and C-20:0, while overexpression of ceramide synthase 2 had no

effect on ceramide production in vivo, presumably due to limited substrate availability, because external addition of very long chain acyl-CoAs resulted in a significant upregulation of very long chain ceramides. We also demonstrated that upregulation of CerS4 and 6 led to the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, whereas upregulation of CerS2 increased cell proliferation. On the basis of our data, we propose that a disequilibrium between ceramides of various chain length is crucial for cancer progression, while normal cells require an equilibrium between very long and long chain ceramides for normal physiology. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The immunogenic heat shock proteins (HSPs) gp96, hsp70 and calreticulin (CRT) bind to CD91 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for cross-presentation of the HSP-chaperoned peptides. This event leads to priming of T-cell responses.

The current study quantitatively distinguishes between health

\n\nThe current study quantitatively distinguishes between healthy older and young adults in generating reactive stepping adjustments to an unpredictable shift of a visual target. The decreased capability for rapidly planning and executing an effective voluntary step modification could reveal one potential cause for the increased risk of falls in the older population.”
“Functional MRI (MI) of default mode network (DMN) brain activity during resting state is gaining attention as a potential

non-invasive biomarker to diagnose incipient Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this study was to identify effects of normal aging on the DMN using different methods of fMRI processing and evaluation. Methods. fMRI was acquired in 17 young and 21 old healthy LY2835219 concentration PCI-32765 mouse subjects and the data were analyzed with (a) volumes of interest (VOI)-based signal time course and (b) independent component analyses (ICA). In the first approach,

the strength of DMN region inter-connectivity (as expressed with correlation coefficients) was of primary interest, the second method provided a measure of the magnitude of DMN co-activation. Results. The older subjects exhibited significantly lower DMN activity in the posterior cingulate (PCC, t-test P<.001) as well as a tendency to lower activity in all other DMN regions in comparison to the younger subjects. We found no significant effect of age on DMN inter-connectivity. Conclusion. Effects of normal aging such as loss of PCC co-activity could be detected by ICA, but not by signal time course correlation analyses of DMN inter-connectivity. This either indicates lower sensitivity of inter-connectivity measures to detect subtle DMN changes or

indicate that ICA and time course analyses determine different properties of DMN co-activation. Our results, therefore, provide fundamental knowledge for a potential future use of functional MRI as biomarker for neurodegenerative dementias where diminished DMN activity needs to be reliably differentiated from that observed in health aging. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome (BOFS) is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder defined by branchial defects, ocular anomalies and craniofacial malformations, including variable degrees of cleft lip with or without cleft palate. In addition, temporal bone anomalies, renal and ectodermal manifestations can be present. Mutations in the TFAP2A gene have been reported in patients with BOFS, prompting phenotype-genotype studies because of the variable clinical spectrum.

For liquid-crystalline membranes, the average structure is manife

For liquid-crystalline membranes, the average structure is manifested by the segmental order parameters

(Scp) of the lipids. Solid-state H-2 NMR yields observables directly related to the stress field of the lipid bilayer. The extent to which lipid bilayers are deformed by osmotic pressure is integral to how lipid-protein interactions affect membrane functions. Calculations of the average area per lipid and related structural properties are pertinent to bilayer remodeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of membranes. To establish structural quantities, such as area per lipid and volumetric bilayer thickness, a mean-torque OICR-9429 concentration analysis of H-2 NMR order parameters is applied. Osmotic stress is introduced by adding polymer solutions or by gravimetric dehydration, which are thermodynamically equivalent. Z-DEVD-FMK research buy Solid-state NMR studies of lipids under osmotic stress probe membrane

interactions involving collective bilayer undulations, order-director fluctuations, and lipid molecular protrusions. Removal of water yields a reduction of the mean area per lipid, with a corresponding increase in volumetric bilayer thickness, by up to 20% in the liquid-crystalline state. Hydrophobic mismatch can shift protein states involving mechanosensation, transport, and molecular recognition by G-protein-coupled receptors. Measurements of the order parameters versus osmotic pressure yield the elastic area compressibility modulus and the corresponding bilayer thickness at an atomistic level. Solid-state H-2 NMR thus reveals how membrane deformation can affect protein conformational changes within the stress field of the lipid bilayer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: NMR Spectroscopy for Atomistic Views

of Biomembranes and Cell Surfaces. Guest Editors: Lynette Cegelski and MK-2206 price David P. Weliky. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The treatment of children with life-limiting diseases and their families involves many challenges. This article presents a compilation of the state of knowledge on the situation in this patient group. Supported by an analysis of the literature on this subject, the aim of this article is to compile knowledge about the situation of children with life-limiting diseases and their families as well as their problems and needs. The questions asked are: what information can be found in the literature on the situation of families with children with life-limiting diseases, what aspects have been investigated and dealt with and which have not yet been taken into consideration? On this basis further considerations are formulated particularly with respect to future research needs.

“N-Vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) was copolymerized statistically

“N-Vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) was copolymerized statistically for the first time in a controlled manner with hydrophilic

N-vinylamide or click here hydrophobic vinylester monomers in order to precisely tune up and down the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the resulting copolymers. The incorporation of these segments in complex architectures was also considered. Several narrowly distributed NVCL-based copolymers were prepared by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) using the bis-(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II) complex as a controlling agent and N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide (NMVA), N-vinylacetamide (NVA), vinyl acetate (VAc) or vinyl pivalate (VPi) as comonomers. PNVCL-containing block copolymers having two discrete LCSTs were also synthesized following a one-pot strategy based on the sequential CMRP of NVCL followed by the copolymerization of NMVA with the residual NVCL. Upon gradual heating of aqueous solutions of such double thermoresponsive copolymers, we noticed a transition from free chains to micelles before Selleckchem R788 full dehydration and collapse of the block copolymers. These advances represent a significant step towards the development of a platform based on thermoresponsive PNVCL copolymers with a single phase separation or multistep assembly behaviors.”
“Excessive Ca2+ or compounds interfering with phosphoinositide

cycling have been found to inhibit the growth of the tangerine pathotype of Altemaria alternate, suggesting a crucial role of Ca2+ homeostasis in this pathotype. The roles of PLC1, a phospholipase C-coding gene and CAL1, a calcineurin phosphatase-coding gene were investigated. Targeted gene disruption S63845 showed that both PLC1 and CALI were required for vegetative growth,

conidial formation and pathogenesis in citrus. Fungal strains lacking PLC1 or CALI exhibited extremely slow growth and induced small lesions on calamondin leaves. Delta plc1 mutants produced fewer conidia, which germinated at slower rates than wild-type. Delta cal1 mutants produced abnormal hyphae and failed to produce any mature conidia, but instead produced highly melanized bulbous hyphae with distinct septae. Fluorescence microscopy using Fluo-3 dye as a Ca2+ indicator revealed that the Delta plc1 mutant hyphae emitted stronger cposolic fluorescence, and the Delta cal1 mutant hyphae emitted less cytosolic fluorescence, than those of wild-type. Infection assessed on detached calamondin leaves revealed that application of CaCl2 or neomycin 24 h prior to inoculation provided protection against Alt. alternate. These data indicate that a dynamic equilibrium of cellular Ca2+ is critical for developmental and pathological processes of Alt. alternate.