Comparing the leaves and the stems, the former had almost double

Comparing the leaves and the stems, the former had almost double the ferric reducing Selleck BIBF-1120 activities of the latter. The presence of high concentrations of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the water extracts may explain the high ferric reducing activities. The antioxidant properties of these two compounds are well documented (Katalinic et al., 2006). The hexane extracts contained

the lowest amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid and moderate amounts of carotenoids which explained the low antioxidant activities. Peschel et al. (2006) have reported hexane to give lower amounts of polyphenols than other solvents. The ABTS -scavenging capacities of the plant extracts were expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and results are shown in Table 2. Similar to the ferric reducing activities, the water extracts had high TEAC values (>0.8 mmol TE/g of extract)

while the remaining extracts mostly had values less than 0.5 mmol TE/g of extract. This is likely contributed by the presence of polyphenols and ascorbic acid in the water extracts. It has been reported that plant Epigenetics inhibitor extracts rich in vitamin C and polyphenols also had high ABTS radical-scavenging capacities (Wang, Chang, Inbaraj, & Chen, 2010). The DPPH radical-scavenging activities of the plant extracts were expressed as EC50, i.e. the concentration required to inhibit 50% of the DPPH radicals (Table 2). The water extracts had low EC50 values, indicating potent radical-scavenging effects, as low concentrations were adequate to inhibit the DPPH radicals. Among the water extracts, Kedah leaf had the lowest EC50 (51.4 μg/ml), followed by Kelantan leaf (57.1 μg/ml), Kelantan stem (120 μg/ml) and Kedah stem (164 μg/ml). The hexane extracts were the least reactive and did not reach 50% inhibition of the DPPH radicals at the concentrations tested. Extracts of B. racemosa in this study had higher DPPH radical-scavenging activities than had cashew shoots (Anacardium occidentale)

(EC50: 72 μg/ml) ( Razali, Razab, Junit, & Aziz, 2008) or common herbs, including basil (EC50: 0.49 mg/ml) and parsley (EC50: 12.0 mg/ml) Molecular motor ( Hinneburg, Dorman, & Hiltunen, 2006). Fig. 1a–d shows the DPPH -scavenging activities of the extracts of B. racemosa, as well as the antioxidant standards, BHT, gallic acid, ascorbic acid and rutin. Overall, the antioxidant activities of the plant extracts showed a concentration-dependent relationship. Activities of the standards, gallic acid, ascorbic acid and rutin, were rapid, reaching maximum inhibition at concentrations below 100 μg/ml, whereas the activity of BHT was slightly lower. The leaf water extracts from Kedah and Kelantan had higher DPPH radical-scavenging activities than had BHT and activities almost similar to gallic acid, rutin and ascorbic acid, implying their potencies.

We saw skin lesion at the contact site LAP biopsy specimens reev

We saw skin lesion at the contact site. LAP biopsy specimens reevaluated by pathologist.

It was reported as micro abscess and necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis. He was diagnosed as Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD) and treatment with Doxycycline was started. A 40-year-old female without any complaint admitted to a general surgery clinic for routine clinical breast examination. She had no history of childbirth, nursing, oral contraceptive check details use, hyperprolactinemia within 2 years. Breast US showed punctate microcalcification in left upper-middle zone and mammography showed nodulary density in left middle zone. Excisional biopsy of breast tissue revealed noncaseating lobular granulomas composed of epithelioid histiocytes and multinuclear giant cells and intraductal papilloma, with no evidence of malignancy. She was

referred to our clinic with presumptive diagnosis of TB. Tissue sample was negative for AFB. Chest radiography was normal (Fig. 3). Three sputum smears AFB and TB cultures were negative. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was normal and bronchial lavage AFB and TB culture was negative. PPD was negative. ESR was 9 mm/h. Serum ACE, calcium and urinary calcium levels were within normal range. Serum tumour marker levels were normal. All other laboratory findings were Fulvestrant supplier normal. Abdominal and neck US examinations were normal. Despite of all examinations, there could not be found any finding related with TB, fungal disease, parasitary disease, and other diseases causing granulomatous lesions. This case was suggested idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM). Diagnosis of granulomatous inflammation is a common practice in pathology. The common causes of granulomatous reaction are infective agents like mycobacteria, fungi, parasites, etc. and non-infective aetiologies like sarcoidosis, foreign bodies, Wegener’s granulomatosis,

Crohn’s disease, etc. In addition, certain neoplasms are also known to be associated with a granulomatous response in the parenchyma e.g. Hodgkin’s disease.1, 2 and 3 Differential diagnosis Selleckchem U0126 and management demand a skilful interpretation of clinical findings and histology. Infections are the commonest causes of disseminated granulomatous disease. Some experts regard an infection as the root cause of all such disorders but that it still remains undetected in some; over the past decade advances in molecular diagnostic techniques have allowed identification of causal organisms that were previously unrecognised.4 Tularemia is caused by bacterium Francisella tularensis. It occurs naturally in rabbits, hares and rodents. F. tularensis can be transmitted to humans via various mechanisms: Bites by infected arthropods, direct contact with infected animals, handling of infectious animal tissues or fluids, direct contact with contaminated soil or water, ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil, inhalation of infectious aerosols. 5, 6, 7 and 8 Because of the difficulty in culturing F.

0 to 11 5, with various buffers (citrate–HCl buffer for pH 4 0 an

0 to 11.5, with various buffers (citrate–HCl buffer for pH 4.0 and 4.5, phosphate–citrate buffer for pH 5.0–7.0, Tris–HCl buffer for pH 7.5–9.0 and glycine–NaOH buffer for pH 9.5–11.5), using 8 mM BApNA prepared in DMSO as substrate, Selisistat as previously described. The thermal stability of the enzyme was determined by assaying (quadruplicates)

its activity after incubation for 30 min at temperatures ranging from 25 to 70 °C ( Souza et al., 2007). After incubation, the samples were left to cool spontaneously at 25 °C before the enzymatic activity assay. Enzyme stability, as a function of pH, was determined after pre-incubation for 30 min using the same buffers in the pH range of 4–11.5. After incubation in buffers, the enzyme activity assay was performed under standard conditions (pH 8.0 and 25 °C). Samples (n = 3) of the purified enzyme (30 μl) Selleckchem Ibrutinib were added to a 96-well microtitre plate with 2 mM solution (30 μl) of MnCL2, BaCl2, LiCl, KCl, CuCl2, CdCl2, ZnCl2, CaCl2, HgCl2, AlCl3, FeCl2 and PbCl2. Deionised water was used to prepare the solutions of

all metals. After 30 min of incubation, 0.1 M Tris–HCl buffer (110 μl), pH 8.0, and 8 mM BApNA (30 μl) were added. The p-nitroaniline content produced was measured in a microplate reader at 405 nm after 15 min of reaction at 25 °C ( Bezerra et al., 2005). Purified trypsin (30 μl) was incubated for 30 min at 25 °C with protease inhibitors (30 μl, 8 mM): phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine-protease inhibitor; N-p-tosyl-l-lysin chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), a trypsin-specific inhibitor; benzamidine, a trypsin inhibitor; N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), a chymotrypsin-specific inhibitor; ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), a chelating compound; β-mercaptoethanol, a reducing agent. After incubation, 8 mM BApNA

was added and the release of p-nitroaniline was measured as the increase in absorbance at 405 nm. The enzyme and substrate blank were similarly assayed without enzyme and substrate solution, respectively. The 100% activity values were those established Astemizole in the absence of the inhibitors ( Bezerra et al., 2001). The effect of NaCl on the activity of alkaline protease was evaluated, using BAPNA as a substrate, at pH 8.0 and 25 °C, by adding NaCl to a final concentration of 0–30% (w/v) to the reaction mixture, according to Klomklao et al. (2009a). The N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme was obtained according to the method of Edman degradation on a protein sequencer PPSQ-23 (Shimadzu Tokyo, Japan) coupled to an HPLC system. All values are presented as means ± standard deviations. These data were statistically analysed by ANOVA, followed by a post hoc (Tukey–Kramer) test, when indicated. Differences between groups were accepted as significant at the 95% confidence level (p < 0.05).

The 10:2/10:2 diPAP was, however, reported to be bioavailable to

The 10:2/10:2 diPAP was, however, reported to be bioavailable to humans as it was detected in human blood

samples (D’Eon et al., 2009 and Yeung et al., 2013a). As these reports do not give a coherent picture of diPAP uptake factors, the assumption is made here that uptake factors for all diPAPs are the same as for the PFAAs, i.e. 0.66, 0.80, and 0.91 for the three exposure scenarios, respectively. The previously reported bioavailability in rats for the 6:2/6:2 diPAP is therewith comparable with the assumed uptake factor in the intermediate scenario of the present study. For exposure through inhalation the assumption is made that there is complete absorption of the PFAAs and precursors (Vestergren et al., 2008). Biotransformation of Afatinib PFOS precursors (EtFOSE and FOSA) to PFOS has been observed in in vivo Endocrinology antagonist experiments in rats with reported biotransformation factors of 0.095, 0.20 and 0.32 ( Seacat, 2000, Seacat et al., 2003 and Xie et al.,

2009), however, the biotransformation of FOSA to PFOS is likely greater (reported as > 0.32), as discussed by Martin et al. (2010). These factors represent the variation of biotransformation factors of precursors to PFOS. As there is no further literature data on biotransformation factors of PFOS precursors, we use these factors for all PFOS precursors in the low-, intermediate-, and high-exposure scenarios, respectively. Biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds (FTOH and PAPs) has been shown to produce multiple PFCAs in in vivo and in vitro studies,

however, metabolism of e.g. 8:2 FTOH or 8:2/8:2 diPAP produced predominantly PFOA and only to a minor extent other chain length PFCAs, such as PFNA ( D’Eon and Mabury, 2011 and Martin et al., 2005). Therefore, odd carbon number PFCAs are not included in this study. We make the assumption that 4:2-telomer based precursors are metabolized only to PFBA, 6:2-telomer based precursors to PFHxA, 8:2-telomer based precursors to PFOA, 10:2-telomer based precursors to PFDA, and 12:2-telomer based precursors to PFDoDA. Biotransformation factors for FTOHs were earlier estimated by Vestergren et al. (2008) based on literature data as 0.0002, 0.005, and 0.017 for CYTH4 the low-, intermediate-, and high-exposure scenarios, respectively. These factors represent the variation of biotransformation factors of telomer based precursors to PFCAs. Biotransformation factors for diPAPs have been determined using rats, and were shown to be chain-length dependent ( D’Eon and Mabury, 2011). DiPAPs with a chain length ≤ 6:2/6:2 had a biotransformation factor of 0.01, while longer chain length (> 6:2/6:2) diPAPs had biotransformation factors around 0.1. These biotransformation factors were used in the intermediate-exposure scenario. As there is no additional literature data available, biotransformation factors for diPAPs in the low-, and high-exposure scenario are chosen as a factor of 10 lower and higher, respectively, compared to the intermediate-exposure scenario.

, 2011), implement the above drift rate scheme However, their fi

, 2011), implement the above drift rate scheme. However, their fit quality in Eriksen and Simon tasks was numerically inferior compared to standard model versions. Therefore, the SSP and the DSTP appear incomplete. Because the DSTP captures qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Eriksen data that the SSP cannot, its architecture

may represent a better foundation for a unified framework. This conclusion should be tempered by two caveats. First, as mentioned in the previous section, relaxing some parameter constraints may lead to different model performances. Second, analysis of the CAFs in the Simon task reveals an important failure of the DSTP to account for accuracy dynamics across conditions, and the model appears to generate qualitatively wrong predictions. The SSP provides a superior fit. These observations deserve further investigations. On the one hand, the p38 protein kinase need for at least one additional parameter seems to weaken the DSTP framework. The model components would sum to eight, which further increases the risk of parameter tradeoffs. On the other hand, this cost may be necessary to capture the types selleck screening library of nuance that are hallmarks of decision-making in conflicting situations. Currently, the

DSTP is a formal implementation of qualitative dual-route models (e.g., Kornblum et al., 1990) in the context of selective attention (Hübner et al., 2010). To explain the particular distributional data of the Simon task, Ridderinkhof (2002) refined dual-route models by hypothesizing a response-based inhibitory mechanism that takes time to build. Alternatively, Hommel (1993) proposed that irrelevant location-based activations spontaneously decay over time. Testing these hypotheses are beyond the scope of the present paper, but they should be considered in future extensions of the model. Importantly, any proposed theory should

provide a principled account of the parametric variations observed between the different conflict tasks. The present work introduced a novel strategy to provide additional insight into decision-making in conflicting situations. The concurrent investigation of Piéron and Wagenmakers–Brown’s laws in Eriksen and Simon tasks highlighted several important constraints for RT models and strongly almost suggested a common model framework for the two tasks. Recent extensions of the DDM that incorporate selective attention mechanisms represent a promising approach toward the achievement of this goal. Detailed analyses revealed that a discrete improvement of attentional selectivity, as implemented through the DSTP, better explains processing in the Eriksen task compared to a continuous-improvement SSP. However, the DSTP fails to capture a statistical peculiarity of the Simon data and requires further development. Our results set the groundwork for an integrative diffusion model of decision-making in conflicting environments.

In fact, retention of live trees at harvest has

In fact, retention of live trees at harvest has ABT-263 manufacturer evolved as a key approach for restoring more age-complex forest stands (Elmqvist et al., 2002, Gustafsson et al., 2012 and Lindenmayer et al., 2012). Retention management approaches reflect the fact that post-natural disturbance

stands often display more complex age structure than is typical after traditional even-aged management approaches. While common, complex structure is not universal; woodlands and savannas are more open communities, possibly with irregular multi-aged structure of the overstory trees where fire burned more frequently (e.g., Guyette et al., 2012 and Hanberry et al., 2014). Prevelance of complex structure is easily conceptualized in forests that are characterized EGFR inhibitor by gap or patch-based, less-than-stand replacing disturbances. By definition, these forests have near continuous canopy cover in the stand matrix. Trees regenerate in gaps of various sizes, establishing a new cohort within the older forest matrix. Forests characterized by gap-based disturbance regimes may consist of several distinct cohorts, resulting in spatially heterogeneous age and canopy structure across the stand (e.g., Frelich and Lorimer, 1991). Silvicultural approaches based on gap- and patch dynamics have been developed to transform

stands with simple even-aged structure to more complex multi-cohort

structure (e.g., Kenk and Guehne, 2001, Leak, 2003 and Loewenstein, 2005). Some of the challenges of doing this, as summarized by Nyland (2003), include (i) a shift in composition to more shade tolerant tree species, (ii) a need Dichloromethane dehalogenase to change the harvesting methods and equipment used, (iii) a change in habitat characteristics for some species, and (iv) the long amount of time required (many decades to centuries) to make the transition. Retention of live trees at harvest is also ecologically justified in forests characterized by stand replacing or heavy-partial disturbance regimes. The post-disturbance stand provides the context for new regeneration and continuity of ecological functions dependent on mature trees in the developing stand (Franklin et al., 2000). Live tree legacies in post-disturbance stands result in more complex age structure than that found in managed even-aged stands, including largely single-cohort forests containing scattered older individuals (Zenner, 2000, Franklin et al., 2002 and Schmiegelow et al., 2006), as well as age structures best described as two-cohort (Wallenius et al., 2002 and Fraver and Palik, 2012). Transformation of even-aged stands to two-cohort structure, or single-cohort with reserves (i.e.

All analyses were performed using PLINK v 107 [15] The number of

All analyses were performed using PLINK v.107 [15]. The number of individuals from each population is

reported in Supplementary Table 2. Simulations were used to assess the power to detect ancient or recent admixture. In all our simulations we used unlinked markers for two reasons: first, the main analyses used were ADMIXTURE [16], the three-population test [17], TREEMIX [18] and Principal Components Analysis (PCA), which all assume unlinked markers; second, the probability to find a segment of x cM (from the source population) λ generations after admixture Selleckchem Galunisertib is 1 − (1 − e(−λx)), so we estimated that 90% of the fragments remaining after 6.000 years would be shorter than 50 kb, so considering the level of linkage disequilibrium could be considered as single loci. One simulation approach was used to estimate the minimum threshold of recent admixture that would be detectable. We selected 5000 unlinked markers from the JPT and Ecuadorian SNP genotypes, and created artificial genomes with different levels of markers coming from one population. In detail, we simulated 16 admixed Ecuadorians with 50%, 20%, 10%, 5% or 1% JPT admixture; the simulated admixed individuals were then analyzed using ADMIXTURE v.122 with Ecuadorian and Japanese as reference populations. Simulations to evaluate the power to detect Adriamycin in vitro a single

more ancient admixture event were performed using the simuPOP python library [19], using parameter values for effective population size and populations split times obtained from the SNP genotype data using the procedure Abiraterone datasheet of McEvoy [20] implemented in the NeON R package available at We modelled a single pulse of migration from a Source population

(representing the East Asian population) to produce an Admixed population (representing the Ecuadorian population); an additional population was simulated as a control (representing an unmixed Native American population). The probability for one individual to migrate from the Source population to the Admixed population was set at 0%, 1%, 5% or 10%. For the 10% scenario, individuals were sampled before the migration event, immediately after the migration event, and at the present time, 6 Ky later. The sample size used was 50 individuals, the genome considered consisted of 2200 independent loci on 22 chromosomes; each scenario was replicated 100 times. Each replicated dataset was analyzed using ADMIXTURE v.122. Principal Components Analysis was carried out using EIGENSOFT v.5.0.2 [21]. Ecuadorian and JPT samples were projected onto the axes obtained from all HGDP populations. PCA was performed on two different datasets: first, with all the populations in this study, and second with just the Native Americans (including the Ecuador samples), Japanese (including JPT), Yakut, French and Russian samples.

63 ± 0 64 kg) Although there was no significant difference in ge

63 ± 0.64 kg). Although there was no significant difference in general characteristics such as age and obesity related parameters (Table 4), different gut microbiota was observed between groups. The rarefaction curves showed the difference of gut microbiota between the two groups (Fig. 4). The richness of bacterial communities obtained from EWG was relatively higher than that of IWG. Phyla of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, and Bacteroidetes were predominant in EWG samples of prior to ginseng intakes, whereas Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria were dominant in IWG samples (Table 5, Fig. 5A). Relative abundances of Actinobacteria

and Proteobacteria in EWG were lower than those in IWG, whereas phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were more abundant in the EWG than IWG. Furthermore the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria Adriamycin order were significantly different between both groups. These results partly correspond with the earlier one. Samples with fecal activity potently metabolizing ginsenoside

Rb1 to compound K had lower levels of Proteobacteria and higher levels of Tenericutes and Bacteriodetes than in samples with fecal activity non-metabolizing ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K [20]. For detailed microbial composition, we analyzed the composition of genera, it had Metformin datasheet also noteworthy differences between groups (Table 5, Fig. 5B). The three predominant genera in EWG were Blautia, Anaerostipes, and Oscillibacter, whereas those in IWG were Bifidobacterium, Blautia, and Clostridium_g4. The relative abundances of Anaerostipes and Eubacterium_g5 were increased in EWG, whereas that of Lactobacillus was increased in IWG. Furthermore, tuclazepam the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, and Clostridium_g23 in EWG were significantly lower than those in IWG. However, the genera that

had significant differences between the groups (Clostridiales_uc_g, Oscillibacter, Ruminococcus, Holdemania, and Sutterella) were not consistent with a previous study [20]. Individual variations of gut microbiota [35] can generate these different results, so it is not easy to compare directly between the two limited sample sized studies. The antiobesity effect of ginseng could work differently depending on gut microbiota composition as explained above. We also wanted to know whether ginseng could make changes of gut microbial composition. Therefore, we investigated changes of microbial composition after ginseng intake. Each group showed changes in microbial composition; the three main dominant genera of EWG were changed to Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Anaerostipes, and those of IWG were changed to Bifidobacterium, Blautia, and Clostridium at the genus level ( Fig. 5C and D). However, neither group showed statistically significant changes at the phylum or genus level (data not shown).

Cross sections surveyed by Mendocino County Water Agency between

Cross sections surveyed by Mendocino County Water Agency between 1996 and 2005

further downstream at Mountain View Bridge indicate fluctuations typical of short-term geomorphic change, with ∼0.8 m of incision during the water year 1998 flood, followed by an increase in bed elevation back almost to the 1996 level in 2001. Between 2001 and 2013, incision lowered the bed by about 0.37 m. Bed elevation fluctuation of erosion or deposition during any one flood is common and longer-term monitoring data is warranted to assess trends. Measurements in a reach of Robinson Creek ∼2.4 km upstream of the mouth measured incision using exposed Akt inhibitor roots of riparian California Bay Laurel Trees as an indicator. In this location, the root systems of numerous trees are fully exposed along both banks of the incised channel. Measured bank heights between the channel bed and the surface of the lateral roots in 2008 reached 2.0 m on average (Fig. 6A). Because trees establish on level alluvial surfaces such as on a creek’s floodplain, vertical banks present below the tree’s root systems clearly indicate incision. In 2013, we assessed tree rings in a core from one of

the undercut trees (main stem diameter ∼198 cm) and assume it is representative of numerous nearby undercut trees of similar size. Portions of the core are indistinct, selleck kinase inhibitor including the heart of the core (Fig. 6B); and because the tree rings are not cross correlated or dated, the core does not give an absolute age. However, about 83 rings are visible, suggesting that the tree established prior to 1930. Because these trees can reach 200 years when mature, we estimate these stream-side trees established sometime after about 1813 and before 1930—and that incision began after their establishment. We examined incision in the study reach through surveyed thalweg, bar crest, and top of bank/edge terrace elevation profiles (Fig. ROS1 7A). The thalweg profile has a reach average slope of ∼0.012. Contrasting the

three channel segments between bridges (Table 1) illustrates that the downstream portion of the reach is steeper than the upstream portion. Variation in bed topography is present despite incision; the thalweg profile exhibits irregularly spaced riffles and pools (Fig. 7A). However, pools present have relatively shallow residual depths (the maximum depth of the pool formed upstream of a riffle crest; sensu Lisle and Hilton, 1999); 60% have a residual depth less than 0.6 m. Several pools contained water during the summer of 2005 and 2008 when the majority of the channel was dry. Variation in bed topography is also exhibited in steeper than average apparent knickzones, with slopes of ∼0.018 ( Fig. 7A). Bars are present in the channel (Fig. 7A); the reach averaged bar crest slope is similar to the thalweg slope, 0.012. Average bar height is ∼0.6 m above the thalweg.

anthropogenic conditions on both delta plain and delta front and

anthropogenic conditions on both delta plain and delta front and the examine how similar changes may affect maintenance of deltas

in general and wave-dominated Alectinib datasheet deltas in particular. The Danube delta, built in the northwestern Black Sea over the last ∼9000 years (Giosan et al., 2009), comprises of two distinct morphological regions (Antipa, 1915). The internal “fluvial delta” was constructed inside the former Danube Bay, whereas the external “marine delta” developed into the Black Sea proper once this paleo-bay was filled (Fig. 1). The modern delta plain preserves surface morphological elements as old as ∼5500 years indicating that sea level did not vary much since then and that subsidence has been minimal when considered at the scale of the whole delta (Giosan et al., 2006a and Giosan et al., 2006b). The fluvial delta is an amalgamation of river-dominated bayhead and lacustrine lobes characterized by networks of successively branching channels and numerous lakes (Fig. 1). Wave-dominated lobes, characterized by beach ridge and barrier plains composed of alongshore-oriented sand ridges, are typical for the marine delta (Fig. 1). Although the youngest region of the marine delta, Chilia III, started as a

river-dominated lobe, it has come under wave-dominance in the first half of 20th century when sediment delivered by selleck kinase inhibitor Chilia branch became insufficient relative to its size (Giosan et al., 2005). Much of

the late development of the delta may be due to expansion of deforestation in the drainage basin in the last 1000 years (Giosan et al., 2012) leading to an overextended Danube delta. The high density of the fossil and active channel network (Fig. 1) suggests that after construction, the natural delta plain was fed by fluvial sediments through overbank flooding and avulsion in the fluvial sector, but primarily via minor overbank flooding in the marine sector. In the latter waves have tended to suppress avulsion and, thus, channel development (Bhattacharya and Giosan, 2003 and Swenson, 2005). The fluvial sediment delivery to the internal delta was probably relatively small compared to the sediment delivered to the coast second even with secondary channels present there. For example, Antipa (1915) described the internal delta after his comprehensive campaign of mapping it at the beginning of the last century as a “vast shallow lake” covered by floating reed islands and with marshes along its edges. Even today hundreds of lakes dot the fluvial delta (Giosan et al., 2005). Antipa’s “vast lake” was bounded by the high banks of the three large Danube distributaries (i.e., the Chilia, Sulina, and St. George from north to south) and the sand ridges of the marine delta, and internally segmented by the minor levees of some more prominent secondary channels.