Treatments groups showed nearly similar findings with this group

Treatments groups showed nearly similar findings with this group (p < .05). There was no significant difference between control and sham groups. In this study, we found that apart from the other members of the PDE inhibitors’ family, enoximone did not contribute to the attenuation of IR injury of kidney.”
“Purpose: The present study

was designed to reveal, whether the 30 min daily full body exposure of mice to an inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF) has a statistically significant effect on diabetic neuropathy.

Materials ACY-241 supplier and methods: Three different doses (100, 150, or 200 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ) were administered intraperitoneally in groups of mice to induce diabetes. Body weight, blood glucose level and the nociceptive temperature threshold of mice were monitored for a period of 12 weeks. The group treated with 200 mg/kg i.p. STZ produced manifest diabetic neuropathy.

Results were compared to non-treated (no SMF, no STZ) and SMF exposure without STZ-treatment group (SMF, no STZ) group. The inhomogeneous SMF was in the range of 2.8-476.7 mT peak-to-peak magnetic flux density. Results:

Whereas SMF exposure did not seem to affect body weight and nociceptive temperature Crenolanib nmr threshold, it statistically significantly (p < 0.001) reduced blood glucose level in the 200 mg/kg STZ (n = 6) group.

Conclusions: Daily SMF exposure repeated for several weeks is protective against the development of high blood glucose level in diabetic mice.”
“In this article a method combining the orthogonal array design and the numerical simulation is used to PND-1186 research buy optimize the geometry parameters of the coat-hanger die with uniform

outlet velocity and minimal residence time. The outlet velocity and the residence time are obtained by simulating the three-dimensional nonisothermal polymer flow in the coat-hanger die, while the optimal geometry design is accomplished via the orthogonal array method. The effects of the manifold angle, the land height and the slot gap on the outlet velocity and the residence time are investigated. The results show that the effects of all the three parameters are significant for the outlet velocity. For the residence time, the manifold angle and the slot gap are the significant factors, while the effect of the land height is insignificant. The optimal geometry parameters of the coat-hanger die achieved in this study are that the manifold angle is 5 degrees, the height land is 70 mm, and the slot gap is 3 mm. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 2511-2516, 2012″
“Study Design. A retrospective analysis.

Objective. To quantify the risks of surgery and explore the associations of early perioperative complications with patient demographics and surgical variables.

Summary of Background Data. Long fusions extending from the thoracic spine to the pelvis in adults are increasingly common.

However, there is little evidence on whether items function diffe

However, there is little evidence on whether items function differently as indicators of SQOL in psychotic

patients with different levels of symptoms and deficits. Substantial differential item functioning (DIF) would, indeed, challenge the validity of established measures. We aimed to investigate the validity of a widely used measure of subjective quality of life (SQOL), i.e., the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile (LQOLP), in the presence of cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms in patients with severe and enduring psychosis.

Method We analysed SQOL ratings of 690 psychotic patients on the LQOLP using item response modelling to detect differential item functioning (DIF) attributable to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits.

Results Patients with more severe general psychopathology were less likely to rate their ‘personal safety’ positively (OR .96, 95% CI .93-.99). More severely depressed click here patients were less likely to endorse positive ‘life as a whole’ (OR .93, 95% CI .89-.98) and ‘mental health’ (OR .93, 95% CI .91-.97) ratings. There was no DIF attributable to cognitive MAPK inhibitor deficits.

Conclusions The findings suggest that the validity of

the LQOLP in psychotic patients may be impaired by DIF due to psychopathology, although the magnitude of effects is unlikely to be of clinical significance. The validity appears not to be compromised by cognitive deficits.”
“Haemochromatosis should currently refer to hereditary iron overload disorders presenting with a definite and common phenotype

characterised by normal erythropoiesis, increased transferrin saturation and ferritin and primarily parenchymal iron deposition related to innate low (but normally regulated) production of the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin. Since the discovery of the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) in 1996, several novel gene defects have been detected, explaining the mechanism and diversity of iron overload diseases. Overall, at least four main types of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) have been identified. This review describes the systematic diagnostic and therapeutic strategy and pitfalls Bromosporine chemical structure for patients suspected for HH and their relatives. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Shockley-Read-Hall model (SRHM) and its simplified model (SSRHM) were used to describe the characteristics of a photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) made from a semi-insulating (SI) gallium arsenide (GaAs) chip, biased at low voltage, and illuminated by a 1.064 mu m laser pulse. These characteristics include the free carrier densities, dynamic photoresistance, and time evolution of output pulses of the PCSS. The deep donor EL2 centers in SI GaAs play a dominant role in both the SRHM and SSRHM as electrons at EL2 unionized centers are strongly excited by the subband-gap photons at the wavelength of 1.064 mu m.

A young girl presented with globus sensation and magnetic resonan

A young girl presented with globus sensation and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed abnormalities mainly Dinaciclib nmr involving white matter tracts of the medulla oblongata and cerebellum. The presence of a mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile Alexander disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis of late-onset presentations of Alexander

“Pain is a difficult outcome to measure due to its multifaceted and subjective nature. The need for selecting proper outcome measures is high because of the increasing demand for scientifically valid demonstrations of treatment efficacy. This article discusses some basic topics in the measurement of pain outcomes and addresses issues such as statistical versus clinical significance, daily home data collection, appropriate length of outcome measurement packets, and the possibility of objective pain measurements. This article also reviews some of the more commonly used tools for measuring pain and pain-related disability. By selecting the proper tools and employing them correctly, we can obtain highly reliable and valid measures of pain outcomes in research

and clinical care.”
“Study Design. Synthesis and analysis of presentation and discussion highlights, with a focus on emerging trends and promising new directions in primary MK-4827 order care research on low back pain (LBP).

Objective. To present a summary of findings, themes, and insights from the Tenth International Forum on Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain, a meeting of researchers designed to share the latest concepts, methods, and results of research on LBP diagnosis, treatment, and disability prevention.

Summary of Background Data. Earlier Forum meetings have developed several common themes and general conclusions. These are contrasted with the presentations and discussions at the 10th International Forum.

Results. Major themes included concerns about the epidemic of chronic, disabling LBP, associated treatments,

iatrogenesis, and the “”LBP medical industrial complex”"; the variability and complexity of outcomes and how their importance differed across patients in defining Vorinostat manufacturer recovery and recurrence; the power of nonspecific effects, expectations, and therapeutic alliance; and the challenges of identifying important therapeutic subgroups. New research addressed early risk factor screening and linked intervention, nonmedical approaches to reframe the LBP problem and avoid unnecessary care, cognitive and behavioral aspects of LBP, and ways to train clinicians to implement these innovations. More appropriate use of longitudinal designs and a greater focus on implementation research was called for.


Using a suitable process model based on oxygen metabolism and an

Using a suitable process model based on oxygen metabolism and an a priori objective function, a hybrid control law is derived that can use online measurements and the states predicted by SAN for computing the desired control action.

RESULTS: The performance

of the SAN-hybrid controller is tested for simulated fed-batch production of methionine for three different process conditions. Simulations assume that online measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration are available. The performance of the SAN-hybrid controller gave an NRMSE of similar to 10(-4) in the absence of noise, similar to 10(-3) and similar to 10(-2) for +/- 5% and +/- 10% noise in the DO measurement and similar to 10(-2) for parameter uncertainty when compared with the ideal model prediction.

CONCLUSIONS: LDC000067 nmr GW2580 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor The observed performance for unmeasured state prediction and control implementation shows that the proposed SAN-hybrid controller can efficiently compute the manipulated variable required to maintain methionine production along the optimized trajectory for different conditions. The test results show that the SAN-hybrid controller can be used for online real-time implementation in fed-batch bioprocesses. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objectives: To study incidence, handling and outcome of patients hospitalised with

symptomatic and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Norway.

Design, material and methods: Retrospective study of 1291 patients, between January 2008 and August 2010 using the National Patient Registry and a regional vascular surgery registry. We applied a stepwise logistic regression model to detect differences in regional in-hospital mortality.

Results: 385/711 (54%) patients hospitalised for aneurysm rupture, rAAA (ICD-10:171.3), died. The odds of dying

varied with a factor 2.3 between the extreme regions. 475/711 (67%) underwent repair, 323 survived, giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 32% after surgery. Older patients were significantly less likely to be transported for surgery. The overall incidence for patients aged >50 was 16.6 rAAA per 100 000 person-years. There was remarkable variation across counties with rates between 7.7 and 26.8. A total of HM781-36B purchase 580 patients were hospitalised with suspected symptomatic aneurysms (ICD-10:171.4, acute admission); 224 (39%) were treated with aneurysm repair, 356 (61%) were discharged without repair without a significant difference across health regions.

Conclusions: For rAAA, we found substantial geographical variations in incidence, surgery and patient outcome. These results highlight the need for increased awareness about the condition and suggest ways to improve care trajectories to reduce delay to surgery, thereby minimising rupture mortality. (C) 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Future interventions should target these women to decrease the ri

Future interventions should target these women to decrease the risk of unintended pregnancies and STIs.”
“Objectives: Biophotonic imaging selleck chemicals was compared to standard enumeration method both for counting Staphylococcus aureus in biofilm and bacterial susceptibility tests of different graft materials.

Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study.

Material and methods: Five types of vascular grafts were placed subcutaneously in 35 mice and challenged with bioluminescent S. aureus. The mice were divided into equal groups as

follows: group A (polyester), group B (polytetrafluoroethylene), group C and D (two types of silver acetate-coated polyester) and group E (bovine pericardium). Controls were given only the bacteria. Screening Library mw The bioluminescence signal of S. aureus, able to predict number of viable bacteria in biofilm without any manipulation, was measured at different time points. Five days postinfection, regular cultures of adherent

bacteria on grafts were obtained. Comparative analyses between bioluminescence activity and culture enumeration were performed.

Results: The number of viable bacteria on silver-coated prostheses was the slightest, indicating superior bacterial resistance. The density of bacteria on polytetrafluoroethylene and polyester was comparable, with a non-significant advantage for polytetrafluoroethylene. Moreover, bioluminescence detected the number of viable S. aureus in biofilm more exactly compared to enumeration of bacteria.

Conclusion: Bioluminescence imaging can be considered a useful tool to characterize susceptibility of any graft material to bacterial biofilm prior to implantation. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Microalbuminuria (MA) is considered a major risk factor predisposing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by MA have been well described. However, data regarding admission MA and coronary and myocardial flow are scant. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects

of admission MA on coronary ML323 blood flow and prognosis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI.

Hypothesis: Did elevated admission microalbuminuria predict poor myocardial blood flow and 6-month mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention?

Methods: A total of 247 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI within 12 hours after symptom onset were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to admission urinary albumin extraction rate (UAER): (1) an MA group (UAER 20-200 mu g/min), and (2) a normoalbuminuria (NA) group (UAER < 20 mu g/min).

Results: Microalbuminuria was observed in 108 patients.

We show here a patient with neuro-Behcet’s disease (NBD) complica

We show here a patient with neuro-Behcet’s disease (NBD) complicated by SyS. Although SyS is well known to occur with brain tumors, trauma, and hydrocephalus, this is the first report to show that SyS is a manifestation of central nervous system involvement in a patient with NBD. High concentrations of norepinephrine (NE)

and IL-8 in cerebrospinal fluid reflected the activity of SyS. The patient’s symptoms showed almost complete improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide. Also, the concentrations of NE and IL-8 were decreased to normal levels. An awareness of the potential for SyS and adequate immunosuppressant therapy are of importance when dealing with patients with NBD.”
“This is a review selleck of our experience with the meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated (MAGPI) hypospadias repair, and we point to some of the factors that determine outcome.

We identified

all patients who underwent MAGPI repair by a single surgeon over an 8-year period. We performed a retrospective chart review followed by telephone interview to assess parent satisfaction and also functional and cosmetic outcome. Decision to undergo this type of repair was intra-operative, depending on position and mobility of the meatus and the quality of peri-urethral tissue.

We identified 48 patients, with a median age of 19 months (8 months-13 years). Position of meatus was glanular (40) or coronal (eight cases). Chordee required correction in 40 % (12/30). Urethral stenting was required in one case. There was no case of fistula, Acalabrutinib ic50 meatal regression, stenosis, or second procedure. A single case of mucosal prolapse was encountered. The majority (47/48) were performed as a day-case. Forty parents agreed to telephone interview. Cosmetic outcome was deemed satisfactory in 95 % (38/40). With regard to unsatisfactory cosmetic outcome, one had a megameatus and the other was aged 13 years and developed a mucosal prolapse.

In selected cases, the MAGPI hypospadias repair provide excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes with minimal complications, and it can safely be performed as a day-case procedure.”
“A model-based approach to

compensate for the dynamics convolution effect on the measurement selleck kinase inhibitor of nanomechanical properties is proposed. In indentation-based approach to measure nanomechanical properties of soft materials, an excitation force consisting of multiple frequencies needs to be accurately exerted (from the probe) to the sample material, and the indentation generated in the sample needs to be accurately measured. However, when the measurement frequency range becomes close to the bandwidth of the instrument hardware, the instrument dynamics along with the probe-sample interaction can be convoluted with the mechanical behavior of the soft material, resulting in distortions in both the applied force and the measured indentation, which, in turn, directly lead to errors in the measured nanomechanical properties of the material (e.g.

3%, ICC = 0 993) and ventricular components (95% CI +/- 6 6%, ICC

3%, ICC = 0.993) and ventricular components (95% CI +/- 6.6%, ICC = 0.989). Inter- observer 95% limits of agreement were within +/- 10.7% (ICC = 0.979), 7.4% (ICC = 0.991) and 7.2% (ICC = 0.991) for atrial, ventricular and total pericardial adipose tissue, respectively.

Conclusion: This study validates the use of a semi-automated three dimensional atrial PAT model utilizing standard (clinical) CMR sequences for accurate and reproducible assessment of atrial PAT. The measurement of local cardiac fat stores via this methodology could provide a sensitive tool to examine the regional effect of fat deposition on atrial substrate which potentially may influence AF ablation strategies

in obese patients.”
“The study was conducted to rind out whether the bioavailability of a 500 mg azithromycin (CAS 83905-01-5) Selleck 3-MA tablet (Zycin (R), test) was equivalent to that of a reference formulation. The pharmacokinetic

parameters assessed in this study were the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 120 h (AUC(t)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(Inf)), the peak plasma concentration of the drug (C(max)), time needed to achieve the peak plasma concentration (t(max)), and the elimination half-life (t(1/2)).

This was a randomized, single blind, two-period, cross-over study which included 18 healthy adult male and female subjects under fasting conditions. In each of the two study periods (separated by a washout of two weeks) a single dose of test or reference drug was administered. Blood samples were taken up to 120 It post dose, the plasma was separated and the concentrations of azithromycin were determined by a LC-MS/MS method.

In this study, the mean AUC(t), AUC(inf), C(max) and t(1/2) of azithromycin from the test drug were 4967.49 ng . h . mL(-1), 5871.74 ng . h . mL(-1), 412.14 ng/mL,

and 51.32 h, respectively. The mean AUC(t), AUC(t), AUC(inf), C(max), and t(1/2) of azithromycin from the reference drug were 4276.75 ng . h mL(-1), 5578.12 ng . h . mL(-1), 419.89 ng/mL, and 51.23 h, respectively. The median t(max) of he test drug and reference drug were 3.0 h and 2.0 h, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90 % CI) of the test drug/reference drug for azithromycin were Selleck LY3023414 101.56 % (86.61 -119.08 %) for AUC(t), 101.27 % (84.97 -120.70 %) for AUCInf, and 97.78 % (84.50 -113.16%) for C(max).

Based on this study, it was concluded that the two azithromycin tablets (test and reference drug) were bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.”
“In the context of inter subject brain surface matching, we present a parameterization of the cortical surface constrained by a model of cortical organization. The parameterization is defined via an harmonic mapping of each hemisphere surface to a rectangular planar domain that integrates a representation of the model.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3590-3595,

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3590-3595, 2011″
“Polycrystalline Fe(3-x)PtxO(4) films have been prepared by cosputtering at room-temperature. The composition, magnetization and Hall effect measurements indicate that Pt ions have been doped at B-sites. The resistivity is dominated by fluctuation-induced tunneling and decreases with increasing x. The absolute magnetoresistance at room-temperature is above 7% for x <= 0.07. The carrier concentration is lower than that CCI-779 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor of the single-crystal and epitaxial films. A scaling relation of sigma(xy) alpha sigma(xx) between the Hall and longitudinal conductivities is

obtained for all samples, which fits well with the recent developed universal scaling theory. The decreasing trend of the exponent n from 1.72 to 1.57 with increasing x could be qualitatively ascribed to the influence of the Pt(2+) ions on the magnetic scattering center concentration of the B-sites Fe(2+) ions. These findings make the Fe(3-x)Pt(x)O(4) film a useful candidate for spintronic or extraordinary Hall effect devices applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3563080]“
“Nonwoven mats were fabricated from a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/polyethylene glycol 1000 Da (PEG 1000) blend by the electrospinning process. PEG 1000 is a low-temperature phase change material P505-15 inhibitor that acts as a heat storage material,

while PVDF serves as a supporting material to afford a mechanically strong form-stable structure. Addition of fumed silica to electrospun (e-spun) PVDF/PEG 1000 nanofibers helped prevent the leakage of molten PEG 1000 during the solid-liquid phase change, as confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. It was

also found that the addition of fumed silica helps improve the mechanical strength of the PVDF/PEG 1000 nonwoven mats. The thermal properties of PVDF/PEG 1000 and PVDF/PEG 1000/fumed silica composite nonwoven mats were investigated LY294002 cost by differential scanning calorimetry. There were no significant changes in the melting temperature and heat of fusion of PEG 1000 after 100 heating/cooling cycles, thereby confirming that these nonwoven mats have high thermal stability. The fumed-silica-incorporated PVDF/PEG 1000 nonwoven mats had large energy storage capacity and excellent mechanical strength. Hence, the aforementioned types of mats are thought to have various applications in energy storage and in the manufacture of thermoregulating textiles. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 35963603, 2011″
“A new negative temperature coefficient of resistor (NTCR) thermistors based on nitrile butadiene rubber/magnetite (NBR/Fe(3)O(4)) nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by conventional roll milling technique. X-ray diffraction and transmission (TEM) analysis showed that the product is mainly magnetite nanoparticles with diameter of 10-13 nm.

The incision in both veins was closed with a running suture “

The incision in both veins was closed with a running suture.”
“The present investigation was conducted to determine how individual European states rank with respect to quantitative productivity in research and publication on IVF. A search in MEDLINE was performed in August 2007 and the number of entries under the MeSH ‘Reproductive Techniques, Assisted’ was registered for each individual year 1990-2006 for 19 European countries. Countries

with a total number of >60 publications between 1990 and 2006 were further evaluated. Publication productivity was assessed by three measures: absolute numbers of scientific articles published in MEDLINE, mean number of publications published per year normalized to population size, and mean number of publications published per year normalized to gross domestic product (GDP). CH5424802 The Benelux and Scandinavian countries lead the field, with a median of 26 publications

per year per 10(7) population in Belgium, followed by Finland, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden with 12, 11 10, and nine publications respectively. This compares with a median of three and two entries from Italy and Germany respectively. After Selleckchem Ricolinostat normalizing the publication number to GDP, Belgium leads the field with a median of 10 publications per year per 10(11)(sic) GDP, followed by Greece, Sweden, UK and Finland with six, six, five and five publications respectively. The back markers are Switzerland and

Germany (one publication each). In conclusion, drastic differences between individual European countries exist in terms of publication activity.”
“The number of intensive care unit patients with infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms is increasing in most developed countries. We report the case of a deceased multiorgan donor, who was an asymptomatic carrier of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) in the respiratory tract, a condition that was not diagnosed before organ harvesting and transplantation. The outcome of the 2 kidney recipients, the liver recipient, and 1 of the lung recipients was uneventful; in particular, 4EGI-1 purchase no evidence of infection transmission or adverse graft outcomes was noted. The other lung recipient had a complicated postoperative course and, 4 weeks post transplantation, he developed a bacteremic pneumonia with CR-KP from which he subsequently died. These results suggest that, in well defined conditions, organs from donors who are CR-KP positive may be considered for transplantation.”
“Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) is the major cause of mortality and morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Recent experimental evidence from animal models has highlighted the need for non-invasive and robust measurements of brain tissue perfusion in patients in order to help understand the pathophysiology underlying DCI.

“Stroke is a devastating brain injury that is a leading ca

“Stroke is a devastating brain injury that is a leading cause of adult disability with limited treatment options. Using a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce cerebral ischemia, we profiled microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-protein Anlotinib Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor coding RNAs, in the ischemic cortex. Many miRNAs were confirmed by qPCR to be robustly upregulated 24 hours following MCAO surgery including miR-155, miR-297a, miR-466f, miR-466h, and miR-1224. In addition, we treated MCAO rats with valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer and histone

deacetylase inhibitor. This post-insult treatment was shown to improve neurological deficits and motor performance following MCAO. To provide mechanistic insight into the potential targets and pathways that may underlie these benefits, we profiled miRNAs regulated following this VPA treatment. Two promising post-insult VPA-regulated candidates were miR-331 and miR-885-3p. miR-331 was also regulated by VPA pre-treatment in rat cortical neuronal cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation, an in vitro ischemic model. The predicted targets of these miRNAs analyzed by Ingenuity

Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified networks involved in hematological system development, cell death, and nervous system development. These predicted networks were further filtered using IPA and showed significant associations with neurological diseases including movement disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, damage to cerebral Elacridar mw cortex, and seizure disorders among others. Collectively, these data support common disease mechanisms that may be under miRNA control and

provide exciting directions for further investigations aimed at elucidating the miRNA mechanisms and targets that may yield new therapies for neurological disorders.”
“Background and Purpose: Optical internal GF120918 inhibitor urethrotomy is the most commonly performed procedure for the management of anterior urethral stricture. This study was performed to compare the safety and efficacy of spongiosum block along with intraurethral lignocaine with intraurethral lignocaine alone for optical internal urethrotomy.

Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with anterior urethral stricture were prospectively randomized to undergo optical internal urethrotomy under spongiosum block along with intraurethral lignocaine (group 1 = 25 patients) and intraurethral lignocaine only (group 2 = 25 patients). The procedure-related pain was noted using the visual analogue scale. Postprocedure evaluation was performed by uroflowmetry and urethral calibration. Retrograde urethrography and micturating cystourethrography were performed as needed.

Results: Optical internal urethrotomy was successfully completed in all patients. The mean visual analogue score for pain in group 1 (1.5 +/- 1.4) was significantly lower than the score in group 2 (2.7 +/- 1.8) (P = 0.006). At 6 months follow-up, recurrent strictures developed in three patients in group 1 and five patients in group 2.