9% for each of the three strains. With these enrollment targets, safety events that occurred in 2% of 150 subjects, 1% of 300 subjects,
and in 0.5% of 600 subjects were detectable with a probability of 0.95. All vaccines were formulated as recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration for the 2007/2008 influenza season and contained the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1), Selleck VE821 A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2), and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 strains. The investigational ID vaccines were manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur (Swiftwater, PA) and contained either 15 μg (batch UD09995) or 21 μg (batch UD09996) of HA per strain in 0.1 mL in a prefilled BD Soluvia microinjection device bearing a staked 30-gauge, 1.5 mm intradermal needle. The HD vaccine (Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA; batch UD09997) contained 60 μg of HA per strain and the SD vaccine (Fluzone®, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA; older adults, batch UD10002; adults, batch UD09999) contained 15 μg of HA per strain in ready-to-use 0.5-mL syringes and were delivered by the IM route. Older adult subjects (≥65 years
of age) were randomized 2:2:1:1 using an interactive computer system to receive a single dose of the 15 μg ID vaccine, the 21 μg ID vaccine, HD vaccine, or SD vaccine. All younger adult subjects were assigned to receive the SD vaccine. All vaccines were administered into the deltoid area of the upper arm. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 28 days after vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were measured Imatinib using a standard
assay . The serum HI antibody titer was defined as the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution that completely inhibited hemagglutination. To calculate GMTs, samples with HI not reaching 100% at the lowest serum dilution tested (1:10) were assigned a titer of 5. Seroconversion in a subject was defined by either a pre-vaccination HI titer <1:10 and a day-28 titer ≥1:40 or by a pre-vaccination titer ≥1:10 and a minimum four-fold titer increase at day 28. Seroprotection was defined as a pre- or post-vaccination HI titer ≥1:40. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded according to the International Conference on Harmonization Guideline MRIP for Clinical Safety Data Management: Definitions and Standards for Expedited Reporting . Solicited systemic reactions (fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, and chills) and solicited injection-site reactions (pain, erythema, swelling, induration, ecchymosis, and pruritus) were recorded by subjects on diary cards for up to 7 days following vaccination. Other non-serious unsolicited AEs were recorded by patients up to 28 days after vaccination. Serious adverse events were recorded by investigators up to 6 months after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling, induration, and ecchymosis were considered grade 1 if <2.5 cm, grade 2 if ≥2.5 to <5 cm, and grade 3 if ≥5 cm. Fever was considered grade 1 if ≥99.5 °F and ≤100.4 °F (≥37.5 °C to ≤38 °C), grade 2 if >100.4 °F and ≤102.