Other neurotransmitter influences are most likely exerted in all

Other neurotransmitter influences are most likely exerted in all parts of this circuit, in both the basal ganglia and the cortex. Given this hypothesis, the obvious proposition is to modulate the circuit’s activity at other neurochemical sites in the circuit. This proposition may underlie the putative therapeutic actions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of glutamatergic27 and GABAergic28

compounds in schizophrenia.
Several lines of evidence suggest that both learn more central serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of major depression1-5. The serotonergic hypothesis of depression6 is based on several findings: the ability of tryptophan depiction to induce depressive symptoms, higher postmortem 5-HT2A/C receptor binding and lower postmortem 5-HT1A receptor binding in the brains of depressed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients, and reduced responsiveness of the serotonergic system to neuroendocrine challenge studies. Various serotonin probes have been proposed as an index of the overall functional status of the central serotonergic system, but

fenfluramine (a 5-HT releaser/uptake inhibitor) is the most widely used. Both d-fenfluramine (d-FEN) and the racemate have been used, but the former is a more specific serotonergic probe, since it lacks Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the dopaminergic and noradrenergic action of df-fenfluramine. There have been some studies of the hormonal response to d-FEN in depressed patients but the results are inconsistent. Some authors7 found a decreased

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical prolactin (PRL) response in patients with major depression compared with normal control Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical subjects, but others8 could not replicate this finding. However, these studies did not address whether a blunted PRL response correlates with suicidal behavior. A recent study9 analyzed a sample of outpatients without a history of a suicide attempt and did not find a difference between normal volunteers and depressed patients in the PRL response to d-FEN. The original catecholamine depletion hypothesis of depression these has been reformulated as the “noradrenergic dysregulation hypothesis,”10 which emphasizes a primary subsensitivity or downregulation in nerve terminal α2-adrenoreceptors, leading to impaired negative feedback on the presynaptic neuron, which, in turn, mayinduce a disinhibition of NA output and exaggerated NA release in response to any activation of the catecholaminergic system. One of the most consistently reported abnormal findings in depression is a blunted growth hormone (GH) response to the acute administration of clonidine, a partial α2-adrenoreceplor agonist, suggesting subsensitive postsynaptic α2-adrenoreceptors at the hypothalamic level.

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