Follow-up studies will be needed to determine if the


Follow-up Modulators studies will be needed to determine if the

durability of the responses to two and three doses remain comparable. However, these results have already prompted some jurisdictions to initiate programs that delay administration of the third dose for at least 5 years, with an interim assessment to determine if it is needed. The immunogenicity of Gardasil® and Cervarix® was also assessed in mid-adult women. In the Gardasil® efficacy trial, peak titers trended modestly downward with age when stratified into 16–23, 24–34 and 35–45 age groups [46]. However, seroconversion rates, measured one month after the third dose in cLIA assays, were greater than 97% for all vaccine types. At month 48, seropositive rates in 24–45 year-olds were 91.5%, 92.0%, 97.4% and 47.9% for HPV6, 11, 16, and 18, respectively. The loss of seropositivity to HPV18 in half of the mid-adult women mirrors the loss in approximately BIBF 1120 clinical trial one third of young women [60]. As mentioned above, this finding may be more related to the specific performance of the HPV18 cLIA used in the analysis, than lower immunogenicity of the HPV18 VLPs used in the vaccine. In a Cervarix® trial SCH 900776 ic50 of women ages 15–55, all women

seroconverted to both HPV16 and 18 at one month after the last dose, as measured in a VLP ELISA [48]. Although peak and plateau titers were higher for the 15–25 year-old group than the 26–45 and 46–55 year-old groups, all women remained seropositive at month 24. GMTs in the 46–55 year-olds remained 16-fold (HPV16) and 8-fold (HPV18) higher than the GMTs elicited by natural infection. Thus, mid-adult PAK6 women are able to mount robust antibody responses to both vaccines. HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of persistent HPV infection, HPV-associated benign lesions and HPV-associated cancers. It is therefore of interest to determine the immune response to the vaccines in HIV-infected individuals. Safety and immunogenicity of

Gardasil® was assessed in separate studies of adult males (ages 22–61) and children (ages 7–12) [70] and [71]. The vaccine was safe and well tolerated in both studies, with no adverse effects on CD4+ cell counts or plasma HIV RNA levels. Seroconversion rates were greater than 95% and antibody titers were approximately 50% of those measured in HIV-uninfected individuals of similar age. These findings encourage targeted vaccination programs for young HIV positive individuals. Since several other vaccines are routinely given to adolescents, it is important to determine if they can be co-administered with the HPV vaccines. Recent studies have demonstrated safety and non-inferior immune responses when Gardasil® was co-administered with Recombivax HB® (hepatitis B; Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ USA) [72], Repevax® (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertusis, inactive polio; Sanofi Pasteur MSD, Lyon France) [73], or Menactra® (meningococcal conjugate; Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.

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