02%) in formulation F7, the value of hysteresis loop and apparent viscosity increased (984dyne·cm·min−1 and 635.30cp). Formulation F7 had the highest hysteresis loop in comparison with other formulations (Figure 1(a)). As with formulation F11, in formulation F8, with increasing concentration of NaCl (0.04%), the apparent viscosity of the suspension was too high to be detected by the
instrument. Comparison Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of formulations F7 and F10 showed, when NaCl was added as flocculating agent, presence of CMC (formulation F10) caused a decrease in the value of hysteresis loop. The value of hysteresis loop and apparent viscosity in formulation F12 without NaCl and PVP was 486.9dyne·cm·min−1 and 831.23cp, respectively. But by adding NaCl, in formulation F13 without PVP, the area of hysteresis loop decreased to 157dyne·cm·min−1 (Figure 1(c)), and the value of apparent viscosity was 670.92cp. In formulation F13 without PVP, NaCl not only could not increase the hysteresis loop and viscosity, but also these values were less than those in formulation F12. The results of rheological assessment indicated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that, when NaCl (0.02%) is added as flocculating agent, additional PVP may be necessary for improving thixotropy. Flocculating agents are added to reduce the electrical forces of repulsion between particles and to allow flocks to be formed in order to prevent cake formation . It can be suggested that enhancement
of thixotropy and viscosity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in formulations containing NaCl and PVP may be related to the cross-linking Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions , which partially prohibits the free mobility of the molecular segment and finally results in improvement of the apparent viscosity.
Hao et al. in 2007 investigated the rheological behavior of PVP in N,N-dimethylformamide solutions containing metal chlorides (LiCl, CaCl2, and CoCl2) . The results showed the apparent viscosity of the PVP solutions increased with increasing metal-ion concentration. NMR spectroscopy showed that there were interactions between the metal ions and the carbonyl groups of the PVP segments in the N,N-dimethylformamide solutions, which partially prohibits free Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mobility of the molecular segment. Also, DSC results indicated that the glass transition temperatures of the PVP/metal chloride unless composites increased with the addition of metal ions . In spite of above results, it is well known that using hydrophilic gums such as PVP and gelatin and polysorbates leads to their adsorption at particle surface and retards crystal growth . Nevertheless, microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in all formulations of acetaminophen selleck chemicals llc suspensions (as shown in suspension F6 in Figure 2). It can be hypothesized that changing the amount of factors such as PVP and polysorbate factors in the formulation of the suspensions will prevent crystal growth. Figure 2 Microscopic view of crystal growth in acetaminophen suspension (F6) (magnification ×40). 4.