Therapeutic anti-angiogenic compounds have been extensively studied for anti-tumour therapy. VEGF inhibitors have been approved for clinical use in cancer diseases. However, anti-VEGF therapy is effective only in particular cases and can lead to serious toxicity [6, 7]. Angiogenesis is a complex process regulated by several regulators. Inhibiting only the VEGF signalling pathway seems to be insufficient. Hence, therapeutic agents affecting tumour cells without harming healthy cells
are necessary to optimise cancer treatments. Carbon nanomaterials can be used as low-toxicity inhibitors of tumour angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles of diamond, graphite, graphene, GW-572016 research buy nanotubes and fullerenes display low toxicity [8–11]. Recently, HKI-272 chemical structure we showed that diamond nanoparticles and microwave-radiofrequency carbon decreased the vascular network in glioblastoma tumours and mRNA levels of VEGFA and bFGF . Furthermore, because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, carbon nanomaterials cause high biological activity and enable easy surface modification [13, 14]. We
hypothesised that pristine carbon nanoparticles can affect VEGF and bFGF receptors and inhibit tumour angiogenesis, but the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic activity can vary between different carbon nanostructures. Consequently, the objective of this study was to explore the anti-angiogenic properties of different carbon nanomaterials to find the most efficient for anti-angiogenic PCI-34051 cell line tumour therapy. Methods Nanomaterials In the present study, we used in ovo chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) to compare the anti-angiogenic properties of Montelukast Sodium pristine
carbon nanomaterials: diamond nanoparticles (ND), graphite nanoparticles (NG), graphene nanosheets (GNS), multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT) and C60 fullerenes (C60). The physical characteristics of the nanoparticles are given in Table 1. ND and NG are spherical nanoparticles, produced by the detonation method with size ranging from 3 to 4 nm. C60 is a spherical nanoparticle that in water solvent aggregates into particles with a mean size of approximately 50 nm. GNS and MWNT are nanomaterials having diameters of 6 to 8 nm and 8 nm, and length of approximately 15 μm and 5 to 20 μm, respectively. Purity and specific surface area (except C60) were provided by the manufacturers. C60 was obtained from SES Research (Houston, TX, USA), and all other materials were from Skyspring Nanomaterials (Houston, TX, USA). The nanomaterials were dispersed in demineralised water using sonication. New solutions were made a day before each repetition. The shape and size of the nanomaterials were visualised using a JEM-2000EX transmission electron microscope (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at 200 kV (Figure 1). Zeta potential measurements were carried out on a Zetasizer Nano-ZS90 (Malvern, Worcestershire, UK) at 25°C.