Supported by NICHD, CDER/FDA and NCTR/FDA. Published check details by Elsevier Inc.”
“HIV-1 R5 envelopes vary considerably in their capacities to exploit low CD4 levels on macrophages for infection and in their sensitivities to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) monoclonal antibody (MAb) b12 and the glycan-specific MAb 2G12. Here, we show that nonglycan determinants flanking the CD4 binding loop, which affect exposure of the CD4bs, also modulate 2G12 neutralization. Our data indicate that such residues act via a mechanism that involves shifts in the orientation of proximal glycans, thus modulating the sensitivity of 2G12 neutralization and affecting
the overall presentation and structure of the glycan shield.”
“Ethanol exposure on gestational
day (GD) 7 in the mouse has previously been shown to result in ventromedian forebrain deficits along with facial anomalies characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). To further explore ethanol’s teratogenic effect on the ventromedian forebrain in this mouse model, scanning electron microscopic and histological analyses were conducted. For this, time mated C57BL/6J mice were injected with 2.9 g/kg ethanol or saline twice, at a 4 h interval, on their 7th day of pregnancy. On CD 12.5, 13 and 17, control and ethanol-exposed specimens were collected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Gross morphological changes present in the forebrains OSI-027 of ethanol-exposed embryos included cerebral hemispheres that were too close in proximity or rostrally united, enlarged foramina of Monro, enlarged or united lateral ventricles, and varying degrees of hippocampal and ventromedian forebrain deficiency. In GD 12.5 control and ethanol-exposed embryos, this website in situ hybridization employing probes for Nkx2.1 or Fzd8 to distinguish
the preoptic area and medial ganglionic eminences (MGEs) from the lateral ganglionic eminences, respectively, confirmed the selective loss of ventromedian tissues. Immunohistochemical labeling of oligodendrocyte progenitors with Olig2, a transcription factor necessary for their specification, and of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, showed ethanol-induced reductions in both. To investigate later consequences of ventromedian forebrain loss, MGE-derived somatostatin-expressing interneurons in the subpallial region of GD 17 fetal mice were examined, with results showing that the somatostatin-expressing interneurons that were present were dysmorphic in the ethanol-exposed fetuses. The potential functional consequences of this insult are discussed. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Multiple APOBEC3 proteins are expressed in HIV-1 target cells, but their individual contributions to viral suppression when expressed at endogenous levels remain largely unknown.