Studies indicate that additional onco/suppressor genes may

Studies kinase inhibitor Tipifarnib indicate that additional onco/suppressor genes may

reside at 11q distal to the MEN1 gene and may play a role in the pathogenesis of PETs (10). Sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors: molecular genetics and pathobiology genome-wide analyses by comparative selleck products genomic hybridization (CGH) indicate that the chromosomal losses occur slightly more frequently than gains, whereas amplifications are uncommon. Losses of chromosome 1 and 11q as well as gains of 9q appear to be early events in the development of pancreatic tumors (10,11). These findings point towards a tumor suppressor pathway and chromosomal instability as important mechanisms associated with malignancy in pancreatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical endocrine tumors. Gains of chromosome 4 and losses Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of 6q were observed in about 50% of functioning tumors, the majority being insulinomas, with a size less than 2 cm (12). Recent studies using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

analysis showed that about 30-40% of pancreatic endocrine tumors had high genetic imbalances defined by chromosomal aberrations (13,14). Homozygous deletion or hypermethylation of p16/MTS1 or a deletion of the p16INK4a tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 9p21 was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical demonstrated in sporadic gastrinomas, but not in insulinomas. Both benign and malignant insulinomas demonstrated high LOH rates for markers on chromosome 22q (93%) (15). Cyclin D1 overexpression was observed by both immunohistochemistry and northern blot analysis in 43% of PETs (16). High-grade PETs share a large fraction of gene abnormalities

with conventional cancers, the most frequent abnormality being in the cell-cycle key regulatory gene TP53. In summary, the data suggest that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical multiple genetic defects may accumulate and result in PETs progression and malignancy. Molecular genetic tests are relevant to the pathogenesis, however, these tests are currently not useful in the diagnostic process Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (15). The epigenetic modifications and differential microRNA-expression mechanistically involved GSK-3 in the dysregulated signaling pathways of PETs are under further investigation (17,18). Classification and grading of PETs The classification of PETs has been controversial, and prognosis is difficult to predict, but important features include metastasis and invasion of adjacent structures (3,19). In the past, two grading schemes have been accepted for pancreatic endocrine tumors (WHO and MSKS), each places a given tumor into categories depending on well-defined histological features: size, lymphovascular invasion, mitotic counts, Ki-67 labelling index, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of metastases and whether the tumor produces hormones (5). Whichever system is chosen, it is clear that almost all of these tumors have the potential to metastasize, even after many years.

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