Strengths of our study include the large sample size from a well-

Strengths of our study include the large sample size from a well-defined cohort for which there is uniform data collection. The completeness of the data from the CCR, including

laboratory values, drug dispensation and diagnoses (the accuracy of which has been validated, as mentioned above), allows a very thorough investigation of HIV-related outcomes. In conclusion, we identified an independent association of HCV infection and cerebrovascular events, and a trend towards an association of HCV and AMI in HIV-infected VA patients when the analyses were controlled for traditional cardiac risk factors. click here With the very high prevalence of HCV coinfection, should it be confirmed as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in other cohorts, it would be prudent to control for HCV infection in future studies of cardiovascular events among HIV-infected patients. Future research is needed to better elucidate

the mechanisms by which HCV increases cardiovascular risk, particularly among those with HIV coinfection. Our findings also suggest that it is reasonable to consider HCV coinfection, among other comorbidities, in management decisions, including decisions on the timing and Selleckchem AZD6244 choice of antiretrovirals, and when monitoring for complications. The “Clinical Care Registry” information was received from the Department of Veterans’ Affairs and the Public Health Strategic Healthcare Group. We gratefully acknowledge their help and assistance for this project. “
“The PubMed database was searched under the following headings: HIV or AIDS and diarrhoea, oesophagitis, candida, Clostridium difficile, cryptosporidium, cyclospora, cytomegalovirus, entamoeba, giardia, herpes, isospora, microsporidia, mycobacteria, parasites,

salmonella, shigella, strongyloides. Gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most frequent problems in patients with HIV disease, and diarrhoea may be caused by a wide variety of organisms (Table 4.1). Symptoms may arise from any part of the GI tract including the mouth, throat, oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gall bladder, rectum and anus. The spectrum of disease has changed with the introduction of HAART with a fall in the overall incidence of opportunistic Paclitaxel in vivo infections and an increase in medicine related side-effects and of conditions found in the HIV-seronegative population. If a cause is not apparent consultation with a gastroenterologist with an interest in HIV related disease of the GI tract is indicated since HIV-seropositive individuals are also susceptible to many of the same conditions as the HIV-seronegative population. Coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus is not covered in these guidelines as it is the subject of separate guidelines [1]. Oesophagitis should be treated empirically with fluconazole and oesophagoscopy should be performed if symptoms fail to settle initially (category Ib recommendation).

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