Furthermore, given the impact of the RGS on functional recovery,

Furthermore, given the impact of the RGS on functional recovery, it is relevant whether the enhanced sensorimotor contingencies combined with task-oriented learning target the motor system in the way assumed.

As a first step, we investigate here the brain areas involved in higher-order visuomotor processing in the VR-based training environment provided by the RGS in healthy subjects. As the RGS involves movement observation, movement guidance, and movement imagery, we assume that the brain areas implicated in the human mirror mechanisms become specifically engaged when subjects perform the ball-catching task in the VR environment of the RGS. In particular, we were interested in whether the imagery of catching the balls as implemented in the functional magnetic resonance imaging Selleck Oligomycin A (fMRI)-adapted version of the RGS would engage cortical BKM120 areas implicated in the human mirror neuron system, such as the IFG and the IPL. Initial results were presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (Prochnow et al., 2011). Eighteen healthy right-handed volunteers (10 men and eight women) with a mean age of 24.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 2.9 years] and a median of 16.5 years (12–19 years) of education, with no history of neurological or psychiatric

disorders, participated in the study. All subjects had normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Before fMRI scanning, participants completed the Edinburgh inventory (Oldfield, 1971) for assessment of handedness, and received a short training session comprising 10 trials of the experimental conditions. All participants gave informed written consent. Experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf (#3221), and were conducted

according Interleukin-3 receptor to the Declaration of Helsinki. For the purpose of this study, a custom software program presented the stimuli, and a special RGS interface box was constructed to interface with the controller of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The participants were presented with the tasks via projection from an LCD projector (Type MT-1050; NEC, Tokyo, Japan) onto a semi-transparent screen inside the scanner room. During fMRI scanning, participants lay supine in the scanner, and viewed the stimuli through a mirror attached to the head coil. Their field of view comprised their entire visual field. Scanning was performed with a 3-T Siemens Trio TIM MRI scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), with an echoplanar imaging gradient echo sequence (repetition time, 4000 ms; echo time, 40 ms; flip angle, 90°). The whole brain was covered by 44 transverse slices oriented parallel to the bi-commissural plane (in-plane resolution, 1.5 × 1.5 mm; slice thickness, 3 mm; interslice gap, 0 mm). In each run, 180 volumes were acquired. The first three volumes of each session were not entered into the analysis.

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