nandrolone induced expression of two genes linked to muscle devel opment, myotrophin, a growth factor, and AE binding protein 1, a transcription factor. At 7 days, myotrophin expression was unaffected by nandrolone while AEBP1 expression was increased, but the magnitude of the change was three quarters of that stimulated by nandrolone at 35 days. At 7 days, selleck compound nandrolone reduced expression of one gene linked to muscle development, Cmya1 predicted. Calcium calmodulin mediated signaling Several genes encoding molecules involved in calcium calmodulin mediated signaling were differentially altered at 35 days as compared to 7 days. Regulator of calcineurin 2 was significantly downregulated by nandrolone at 35 days but was upregulated at 7 days. Thrombospondin 1 was upregulated by nandrolone at 35 days but down regulated at 7 days.
Calcineurin B, type1 was up regulated by nandrolone at 35 days but unchanged at 7 days. Growth factors and response to wounding Nandrolone altered the expression Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of several growth factors. At 35 days, nandrolone markedly upregulated apolipoprotein D Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and galanin. At 35 days, nandrolone also upregulated osteoglycin, chemo Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries kine ligand Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 7 and chemokine receptor 1 and the Wnt inhibitors secreted frizzled related peptides 2 and 4. Expression of these genes was not affected by nandro lone at 7 days, with the exception of galanin. At 7 days, nandrolone upregulated osteomodulin, adipo nectin C1q and collagen domain containing, and Sema3b. At 7 days, nandrolone down regulated sclerostin domain containing 1, a BMP 1 antagonist.
Protein kinases and their regulators Genes encoding or regulating protein kinases were also differentially regulated by nandrolone at both 7 and 35 days. At 35 days, nandrolone upregulated the following, protein kinase inhibitor alpha, the a1 catalytic subunit of AMP activated protein kinase, and Sprouty protein with EVH 1 domain 1 related Entinostat sequence. At 35 days, nandrolone downregu lated the gamma 3 non catalytic subunit of AMP acti vated protein kinase, and calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II, alpha. At 7 days, nandrolone upregulated SPRED1, although to a lesser extent than at 35 days, but did not alter expres sion of Pkia, Prkag3, or Camk2a. At 7 days, nandrolone downregulated tribbles homolog 1, a modu lator of MAPK pathways. Transcription RNA processing At 35 days, nandrolone upregulated selected transcription factors by 1.
5 to 2. 8 fold, including early response genes, the human immunodeficiency virus type I enhan cer binding protein 1, and Nupr1, a tumor suppressor that regulates transcription and has been associated with cardiac muscle hypertrophy. Nandrolone also upregulated ATF3 at 35 days. At 35 days, nandrolone repressed forkhead box pro tein O1A, more commonly referred to as FOXO1, Bicalutamide Casodex the designation used hereafter. Also repressed by nandro lone at 35 days were transforming, acidic coiled coil containing protein 2, and heat shock tran scription factor 4. Genes for three transcriptional coregulat