Fortunately, despite this wide range of deleterious age-related changes, there are promising
interventions. Multiple studies have shown that resistive exercise among the MK-8776 order elderly of both genders can result in substantial improvements in muscle strength and in overall functional status, where increases in muscle strength indices can exceed 50–100%. For subjects who cannot tolerate or are unwilling to undertake exercise, pharmacologic interventions, such as GH or IGF-1 interventions, are under investigation. These have had mixed results, and newer approaches, such as myostatin inhibition and selective androgen receptor modulators, are also in the early stages of investigation. Noninvasive imaging approaches such as CT, MRI, and PET are showing promise as clinical tools that may yield important basic information
regarding the mechanisms of sarcopenia and the modes of action of multiple interventions. S3I-201 Conflicts of interest Thomas Lang has received an Independent Investigator Grant from Merck. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, SIS3 provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References 1. Bureau UC (2006) In: Bureau UC (ed) US Census Bureau: international database. Table 94. 2. Greenlund LJ, Nair KS (2003) Sarcopenia—consequences, mechanisms, and potential therapies. Mech Ageing Dev 124:287–299PubMed 3. Brooks SV (2003) Current topics for teaching skeletal muscle physiology. Adv Physiol Educ 27:171–182PubMed 4. Faulkner JA, Larkin LM, Claflin DR, Brooks SV (2007) Age-related changes
in the structure and function of skeletal muscles. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 34:1091–1096PubMed 5. Brooks SV, Faulkner JA (1994) Skeletal muscle weakness in old age: underlying mechanisms. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:432–439PubMed 6. Celichowski J (2000) Mechanisms underlying the regulation of motor unit contraction in the skeletal muscle. J find more Physiol Pharmacol 51:17–33PubMed 7. Herzog W, Ait-Haddou R (2002) Considerations on muscle contraction. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 12:425–433PubMed 8. Larsson L, Ramamurthy B (2000) Aging-related changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms and interventions. Drugs Aging 17:303–316PubMed 9. Porter MM, Vandervoort AA, Lexell J (1995) Aging of human muscle: structure, function and adaptability. Scand J Med Sci Sports 5:129–142PubMedCrossRef 10. Sakamoto K, Goodyear LJ (2002) Invited review: intracellular signaling in contracting skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 93:369–383PubMed 11. Westerblad H, Allen DG, Bruton JD, Andrade FH, Lannergren J (1998) Mechanisms underlying the reduction of isometric force in skeletal muscle fatigue. Acta Physiol Scand 162:253–260PubMed 12. Wick M (1999) Filament assembly properties of the sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Poult Sci 78:735–742PubMed 13.