(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Intracranial hemangiopericytomas are a rare type of primary brain tumor, representing only about 0.5% of all primary brain tumors. Even more rare is the coexistence of two juxtaposed primary brain tumors, termed a “”collision”" tumor. This report provides the first documentation in the literature of a hemangiopericytoma colliding with a meningioma, and recurring after treatment with gross total resection. Surgical samples

were fully evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin and reticulin staining, as well as immunohistochemical analysis. Results were Tariquidar datasheet classically representative of a hemangiopericytoma (World Health Organization grade II) and of a meningioma (World Health Organization grade I). This report of a unique collision tumor not only augments the repertoire of collision tumor combinations described in literature but also provides follow-up on the clinical outcome of the patient, thereby raising clinically relevant issues ranging from presentation to treatment paradigms.”
“The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis are not fully understood, though there is growing evidence that genetic VE-821 research buy predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or impairment of regulatory T-cells are involved

in the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune liver attack. The histological picture of interface hepatitis, PD173074 characterized by a dense portal mononuclear cell infiltrate, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of this condition. Liver damage is likely to be orchestrated by CD4(pos) T-cells recognizing an autoantigenic liver peptide. For autoimmunity to arise, the peptide must be presented by antigen-presenting cells to naive CD4(pos) T-helper (Th0) cells. Once activated, Th0-cells can differentiate into Th1-, Th2-, or Th17-cells, initiating a cascade of immune reactions that are determined by the cytokines they produce. Autoantigen recognition and the above effector mechanisms are

opposed by regulatory T-cells, a cell subset numerically and functionally impaired in autoimmune hepatitis. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Effective response inhibition is a key component of recovery from addiction. Some research suggests that response inhibition can be enhanced through reward contingencies. We examined the effect of monetary incentive on response inhibition among adolescents with and without substance use disorder (SLID) using a fast event-related fMRI antisaccade reward task. The fMRI task permits investigation of how reward (monetary incentive) might modulate inhibitory control during three task phases: cue presentation (reward or neutral trial), response preparation, and response execution. Adolescents with lifetime SUD (n = 12; 100% marijuana use disorder) were gender and age-matched to healthy controls (n = 12).

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