1AKO mice did not differ from wild-type mice in startle plasticit

1AKO mice did not differ from wild-type mice in startle plasticity.

Serotonin(1A) receptor deletion does not enhance vulnerability to the effects of MS on startle plasticity. The life-long increase in startle reactivity and PPI deficit induced

by MS are strain-dependent. Further, the use of startle reactivity and plasticity may have added value in translational studies relating to early life stress.”
“Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause GW3965 severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since

EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-D-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown Selinexor cell line of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans

was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct enough binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.”
“It is known that dopaminergic cell loss leads to increased endogenous cannabinoid levels and CB1 receptor density.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of dopaminergic cell loss, induced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, on the effects exerted by cannabinoid agonists on neuron activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of anesthetized rats.

We have previously shown that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and anandamide induce both stimulation and inhibition of STN neuron activity and that endocannabinoids mediate tonic control of STN activity. Here, we show that in intact rats, the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 stimulated all recorded STN neurons.

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