Written informed consent was received from all participants and parents after detailed explanation about Volasertib cancer the aims, benefits, and risks involved with this investigation. Participants with self-reported history of neurological or musculoskeletal conditions affecting the balance control system were excluded from the study. Prior to testing, all participants completed a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ-C) to assess their basic activity level. Body height was measured and recorded in cm to the nearest mm. Body mass was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg with an electronic weight scale with the participant in shorts and T-shirt. BMI was calculated for each participant. The experimental session comprised of nine balance trials, three trials each of three sensory conditions, with each trial lasting 30 seconds in order to have reliable postural sway measures (Le Clair and Riach, 1996).
According to the findings of Geldhof et al. (2006) who used similar methods to the present study, the composite inter-test reliability of three trials has an ICC of 0.77. The sequence of the conditions was randomised with a one-minute rest period between conditions to avoid learning or fatigue effects. Participants were asked to stand barefoot quietly, with each foot on a separate force platform (1Hz, Models 4060-08 and 6090, Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH, USA) embedded in the ground. Participants used a safety harness to prevent them from injury in case of an irrecoverable balance loss. The harness has proven to be safe without impeding natural quiet standing (Freitas et al., 2005).
The children stood with feet shoulder-width apart and arms hanging loosely at their sides for each trial. During the CONTROL and EOCS conditions, children were standing and gazed straight ahead at a 3 m far target. However, they were not required to fix their gaze on any particular spot. For the latter condition, a 10 cm thick layer of foam was placed on top of each force platform to interfere with somatosensory information from the feet and ankles. The COP and torque on the force platform were calculated from the force and moment components of the force platform data. The displacement of COP is the reaction to body dynamics (Winter, 1995) and follows the neuromuscular control signal to maintain the position the COM within the BOS and achieve equilibrium (Riley et al., 1990).
To obtain a quantitative description of standing ability, the following COP parameters were computed. COP path velocity (COP-PV): the average distance travelled by the COP per second. COP-PV is assumed to decrease with better balance performance. Brefeldin_A COP radial displacement (COP-RD): the mean radial distance of the COP from the centroid of the COP path over the entire trial. COP-RD data were normalized by expressing the results relative to the height of the participant. COP-RD is presumed to decrease with better balance performance.