Total RNA was then extracted

Total RNA was then extracted URMC-099 order using a RiboPure Yeast Kit (Ambion) and purified of gDNA with Turbo DNase (Ambion). RNA was assessed using a NanoDrop-2000c spectrophotometer (Thermo

Scientific) and Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer to determine RNA concentration, purity, and integrity. Microarray experiments: cDNA synthesis, labeling, and hybridization cDNA was generated from 10 μg aliquots of purified RNA by first annealing hand-mixed random oligonucleotides (pdN9, 6.3 μg) and oligo(dT)19V (8.3 μg) obtained from IDT (Integrated DNA Technologies). First strand cDNA synthesis was then performing using Super Script III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) in a reaction containing 0.25 mM DTT and 0.5 mM total deoxynucleoside triphosphates (amino-allyl-dUTP and deoxynucleoside triphosphates) in a ratio of 3:2 aa-dUTP.

After synthesis for 3 hr at 42°C, the cDNA was hydrolyzed with 0.3 M NaOH and 0.03 M EDTA. The reaction was then neutralized with 0.3 M HCl to pH 7.0. Following this, cDNA was purified using a 25 ug capacity DNA Concentrator and Cleanup Kit (Zymo), dried using a Speed-vac, resuspended in ddH2O (2 μg cDNA per 9 μl water), and stored at −80°C. Dye coupling was achieved by adding 1 μL of 1.0 M NaHCO3 solution (pH 9.0) and 1.25 selleck chemicals μL of either Cy3 or Cy5 Amersham monoreative dye (GE Healthcare; dissolved in DMSO) to each 9 μL aliquot of cDNA, then incubating for 1 hr at room temperature in darkness. Unincorporated Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dye was removed and the samples purified using the Zymo cleanup kit. Dye incorporation and cDNA yield were quantified using the NanoDrop-2000c spectrophotometer on the microarray setting. 300 ng of the relevant Cy3- and Cy5-stained cDNAs (control and experiment) were then pooled in a total volume of 25 μL ddH2O and denatured at 95°C for 3 min. Following denaturation, 25 μL of 2x HiRPM gene expression and hybridization buffer (Agilent) was added to each sample. These cDNA solutions were then applied to the microarray slide and incubated at 65°C for ~17 hr in a hybridization oven, as per the manufacturer’s instructions. The slides were

then sequentially washed in a row of Agilent Wash Buffer I, Agilent Wash Buffer II, and acetonitrile (Sigma), and dried using Agilent drying and stabilization buffer. Microarray data analysis and bioinformatics Slides were Akt inhibitor scanned using an Axon 4000B scanner (Molecular Devices) and fluorescence was quantified using GENE Pix Pro 3.0 software (Molecular Devices). Data was then normalized using the Goulphar transcriptome platform (http://​transcriptome.​ens.​fr/​goulphar/​). Duplicate spots for each gene were averaged in Microsoft Excel, and the results were confirmed using qPCR. The Cytoscape 2.8.3 (http://​www.​cytoscape.​org/​download.​php) plugin BiNGO 2.44 was used to identify enriched biological processes in differentially expressed genes after Benjamini & Hochberg false discovery correction for multiple hypothesis testing.

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