To understand its function, the recombinant version of the protei

To understand its function, the recombinant version of the protein was biochemically characterized.

For the sake of comparison, a mycobacterial thioredoxin, TrxB, was included in the study. Results show that Gp56 can be reduced by dithiothreitol, but only at a higher concentration as compared with TrxB, indicating that the standard redox potential of Gp56 is lower than SAHA HDAC solubility dmso that of TrxB. The reduced protein can subsequently act as a reductant of protein disulfide bonds. Gp56 can be reduced by NADPH with the help of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) but less efficiently as compared with TrxB. The abilities of Gp56 and TrxB to reduce Gp50, the L5-encoded ribonucleotide reductase, was examined. While both are capable Selleckchem MLN0128 of executing this function, the former needs more reducing equivalents in the process as compared with the latter. This study shows that L5Gp56 represents a new class of NrdH-like proteins that function optimally in a reducing environment. “
“Streptococcus suis is a worldwide cause of various swine infections and is also an important agent of zoonosis. Strains of S. suis are classified according to their serotype, and currently, 35 serotypes are recognized. The aim of this study was to characterize nontypeable isolates of S. suis with regard to their cell surface properties

and compare them with serotype 2 strains, the most frequently associated with infections. The seven nontypeable strains of S. suis isolated from infected animals demonstrated a stronger capacity to adhere to a fibronectin-coated polystyrene surface than the serotype 2 isolates. Three nontypeable very strains were also tested for their ability to adhere to endothelial cells and were found to attach in higher amounts compared with the serotype 2 isolates. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the absence of a capsule in the seven nontypeable isolates, which

correlated with a much higher cell surface hydrophobicity than that of serotype 2 isolates. All nontypeable isolates of S. suis also showed the capacity to form a biofilm while serotype 2 isolates were unable to do so. In conclusion, the nontypeable isolates of S. suis examined in this study possess surface properties different from those of serotype 2 isolates. Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen causing severe diseases such as meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, and endocarditis (Arends & Zanen, 1988; Gottschalk & Segura, 2000). This Gram-positive bacterium can also affect humans in close contact with sick or carrier pigs or with their derived products (Gottschalk & Segura, 2000; Gottschalk et al., 2007). Many putative virulence factors produced by S. suis have been described, including the muramidase-released protein, the extracellular protein factor, the haemolysin (also known as suilysin), and the capsule (Baums & Valentin-Weigand, 2009).

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