These data suggest that 2-AG–CB1 receptor signalling in the vHip has an anti-aversive effect, and that this effect is abolished in the presence of a persistent pain state. “
“Small-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels are expressed in the hippocampus where they regulate synaptic responses, plasticity, and learning and memory. To investigate the expression of SK3 (KCNN3) subunits, we determined the developmental profile and
subcellular distribution of SK3 in the developing mouse hippocampus using western blots, immunohistochemistry and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy. The results showed that SK3 expression increased during postnatal development, selleck chemicals and that the localization of SK3 changed from being mainly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and intracellular sites during the first postnatal week to being progressively concentrated in dendritic spines during later stages. In the adult, SK3 was localized selleck mainly in postsynaptic compartments, both at extrasynaptic sites and along the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Double labelling showed
that SK3 co-localized with SK2 (KCNN2) and with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Finally, quantitative analysis of SK3 density revealed two subcellular distribution patterns in different hippocampal layers, with SK3 being unevenly distributed in CA1 region of the hippocampus pyramidal cells and homogeneously distributed in dentate gyrus granule cells. Our results revealed a complex cell surface distribution of SK3-containing channels Methocarbamol and a distinct developmental program that may influence different hippocampal functions. “
“Components of the Reelin-signaling pathway are highly expressed in embryos and regulate neuronal positioning, whereas these molecules are expressed at low levels in adults and modulate synaptic plasticity. Reelin binds to Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and Very-low-density lipoprotein receptors, triggers the phosphorylation
of Disabled-1 (Dab1), and initiates downstream signaling. The expression of Dab1 marks neurons that potentially respond to Reelin, yet phosphorylated Dab1 is difficult to detect due to its rapid ubiquitination and degradation. Here we used adult mice with a lacZ gene inserted into the dab1 locus to first verify the coexpression of β-galactosidase (β-gal) in established Dab1-immunoreactive neurons and then identify novel Dab1-expressing neurons. Both cerebellar Purkinje cells and spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons have coincident Dab1 protein and β-gal expression in dab1lacZ/+ mice. Adult pyramidal neurons in cortical layers II–III and V are labeled with Dab1 and/or β-gal and are inverted in the dab1lacZ/lacZ neocortex, but not in the somatosensory barrel fields. Novel Dab1 expression was identified in GABAergic medial septum/diagonal band projection neurons, cerebellar Golgi interneurons, and small neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei.