These cases were also classified as probable in nine cases, prove

These cases were also classified as probable in nine cases, proven in 29 cases, and possible in one case. All cases of PCM were classified as proven. The patients were alive at the time of diagnosis using PCR with the exception of patient 21 whose samples were obtained post learn more mortem. The demographic characteristics and underlying conditions are summarized in Table 1. The median age of patients was 34 (22–54) although age was not reported in five cases. There was a total of 21 males (54%) and 18 females (46%). The majority came from South-American countries (30/36) (83%), particularly Ecuador (42%), five

patients came from African countries (14%) and one patient had visited several African and South-American countries. The origin was not reported in four cases (Table 2). Only nine patients were travelers returning from endemic regions, without underlying diseases (23%) (Table 3).

The remaining patients were immigrants and people who had lived in these regions for a long time (77%) (Table 2) and had underlying conditions, in most cases HIV+ (97%). One of them was an oncohematological case. The median age of patients with PCM was 51 with a range from 31 to 67. Age was not reported in one case. All Transmembrane Transporters modulator were males (100%) with the precedent of having stayed in South-American countries. Four were immigrants and two were Spaniards who had lived long term in these areas (patients 2 and 4). No immunosuppression was reported in any case (Tables 4 and 5). The diagnosis was delayed because of the lack of clear symptoms Pembrolizumab mouse in all the cases.25 In addition, the diagnosis was wrong in two of them, clinical manifestations suggested sarcoidosis in one case and histoplasmosis in the other. We had nine cases of histoplasmosis in travelers,

all with a history of travel to an endemic area and a clinical picture consistent with histoplasmosis. We had a cluster of four females who had visited rural areas in Ecuador2 (patients 1–4, Table 3); a physician who had traveled through African and South-American countries (patient 5, Table 3); one person who had visited a cave in Venezuela (patient 6, Table 3); a volunteer who had returned from Africa (patient 7, Table 3); and two other tourists traveling through rural areas in South-America (patients 8 and 9, Table 3). All cases were defined as probable, and the microbiological diagnosis was based on the serological test. The immunodiffusion test was positive in all the cases and the RT-PCR in five patients (5/9, 55.5%). The PCR technique was performed on seven sera, three blood samples, two lung biopsies, and on one sputum sample. By samples, the technique was positive in 43% of the sera (3/7) and 100% of biopsies and respiratory samples (3/3). No positive results were obtained in the three blood samples tested. The fungus was not isolated in any case.

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