Table 1 summarizes significant group changes in protein expressio

Table 1 summarizes significant group changes in protein expression, while Figure 2 presents representative blots and significant changes for each subunit. Diltiazem not only prevented the significant decrease in 1 ROD at 24 hours post injury, but significantly increased 1 expression in both injured and sham compared to untreated sham, indicating diltiazem significantly this website increased 1 expression, regardless of injury condition. Diltiazem significantly decreased 3 ROD in both injured and sham, beyond the significant decrease seen in untreated injured hippocampus, indicating diltiazem sig nificantly decreased 3 expression, regardless of injury condition. Diltiazem normalized the significant decrease in 2 expression due to injury, but had no effect on 2 in sham hippocampus.

Diltiazem had no significant effect on 2 expression. The effects of DZ on 1, 3, and 2 expression were the same as the effects of diltiazem on these subunits. DZ sig nificantly increased both sham and injured 1 ROD 24 hours post injury, indicating DZ significantly increased Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 1 expression, regardless of injury condition. DZ also signifi cantly reduced 3 ROD in both sham and injured Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries hippocampus beyond the injury induced decrease in expression, indicating DZ decreased 3 expression, regardless of injury condition. DZ normalized 2 injury induced decreases in ROD without significantly effecting sham 2 expression. DZ had the unique effect of signifi cantly increasing 2 expression in both sham and injured hippocampal tissue, indicating DZ significantly increased 2 expression, even though there was no injury effect on this subunit.

Discussion The hypothesis that TBI would differentially alter GABAAR subunit expression in the hippocampus in a time dependent manner was supported. Both 1 and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 2 subunit expression Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries increased acutely after injury, but were significantly decreased by 24 h, while 3 and B3 showed time specific transient changes and 2 and 5 subunits were not altered significantly at any time point. MK 801 prevented changes to all subunits studied 24 hours after TBI, while diltiazem and DZ treatments had nearly Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries identical effects, normalizing 2 and altering 1 and 3 expression. DZ also significantly increased 2 expression in both sham and injured animals. Study 1 Expression of GABAAR Subunits After TBI This study is the first to demonstrate time dependent in vivo GABAAR protein expression changes due to TBI.

Most predominant GABA A subunits have been identi fied as having specific physiological relevance, often through the use of knockout and knockdown animals. Differential changes in subunits may have important rele vance since GABAAR subunits regulate different func tions. The B subunit of the GABAAR is vital for the regulation of ion selectivity and general properties of the chloride channel, as evidenced by B3 knockout mice developing epilepsy, a disorder associated with a disruption in the ionic balance in the cells.

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