Recovery of coral cover occurred offshore between 1995 and 2005. From 2005 to 2011, however, a less severe loss in coral cover was observed. With the exception of inshore reefs, which appear to be
on an ongoing trajectory of decline that started before the 1985 surveys, the reefs of the Jakarta Bay- Thousand Islands system have shown a propensity to recover.”
“During phagosome maturation, the late endosomal marker Rab7 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 localize to the phagosomes. We investigated the mobility of Rab7 and LAMP1 on the phagosomes in macrophages by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. Rab7 was mobile between the phagosomal membrane and the cytosol in macrophages that ingested latex beads during phagosome maturation. The addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) restricted this mobility, suggesting that Rab7 is forced to bind to the phagosomal EVP4593 nmr membrane by IFN-gamma-mediated activation. Immobilization KPT-8602 cell line of LAMP1 on the phagosomes was observed irrespective of IFN-gamma-activation. We further examined the mobility of Rab7 on the phagosomes containing mycobacterium bovis
BCG by FRAP analysis. The rate of fluorescence recovery for Rab7 on mycobacterial phagosomes was lower than that on the phagosomes containing latex beads, suggesting that mycobacteria impaired the mobility of Rab7 and arrested phagosome maturation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In this study, we investigated the effects of a Chinese herbal medicine formula Xiao-Gao-Jiang-Zhuo (XGJZ) in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. Ten male rats in the normal group were fed with a standard diet. Another 50male obese rats were induced by a 12-week high-fat diet feeding, and were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10 per group).the model group, the high-dose XGJZ group, the middle-dose XGJZ group, the low-dose XGJZ group, and the sibutramine group. After 14 weeks of
treatment, body weight, abdominal fat, blood lipid and serum insulin level were measured, and the protein and gene expression of PTP1B in liver tissue was tested. Our data showed that the body weight of the high-dose and middle-dose groups and the 3-deazaneplanocin A Epigenetics inhibitor sibutramine group had significant differences in comparison with the model group (p < 0.05), and all three dose groups had significantly reduced abdominal fat (p < 0.05). The triglyceride level of the three dose groups and the sibutramine group, and the total cholesterol level of the middle-dose group were all significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The serum insulin of the high-dose and middle-dose groups also decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The expression of hepatic PTP1B mRNA of the three dose groups decreased significantly in comparison with the model group (p < 0.05 or 0.01). The expression of hepatic PTP1B protein of the high-dose and middle-dose groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05).