Preconception counseling for HIV+ women as well as postpartum issues are addressed. Martha W.F. Rac and Jeanne S. Sheffield Of the 5 types of viral hepatitis (HAV–HEV), HBV and HCV are by far the most common causes selleck products of chronic hepatitis in both pregnant and nonpregnant populations, causing more than 50% of cirrhosis cases and 78% of cases of primary liver cancer. Infection during pregnancy can have adverse effects on both the mother and her fetus. For all 5 viral hepatitis syndromes, early identification allows appropriate measures to be taken to optimize pregnancy
outcomes and minimize the risk of perinatal transmission. This article reviews the prevention and management of all 5 viral hepatitis syndromes during pregnancy. Julie Johnson and Brenna Anderson Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of permanent disability in children. The main source of maternal infection is from contact with young children. Primary maternal infection is diagnosed with demonstration of seroconversion or a positive CMV IgM in combination with a low-avidity CMV IgG. Fetal infection may be diagnosed with amniotic fluid polymerase chain reaction and culture. CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin has Obeticholic Acid concentration shown promise as a possible means to prevent congenital infection; large randomized trials are ongoing. To date, the only effective means of prevention
is through reducing exposure to the virus. Rates of maternal infection may be reduced through
education regarding sources of infection and improved hygiene. Alyssa Stephenson-Famy and Carolyn Gardella Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing. Amy P. Murtha and James M. Edwards Genital mycoplasmas are frequently found in the vaginal flora across socioeconomic and ethnic groups and have been demonstrated to be involved Interleukin-2 receptor in adverse perinatal outcomes. Both Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp cause inflammation potentially leading to spontaneous preterm birth and PPROM as well as postdelivery infectious complications and neonatal infections. Herein we have provided an overview of the existing literature and supportive evidence for genital mycoplasma’s role in perinatal complications. Future research will need to focus on clearly delineating the species, allowing for discrimination of their effects. Homa K. Ahmadzia and R. Phillips Heine Group B streptococcus (GBS) can cause significant maternal and neonatal morbidity.