PeakForce Tapping (PFT) in liquid media is a novel, cutting edge

PeakForce Tapping (PFT) in liquid media is a novel, cutting edge breakthrough in AFM that allows the imaging and quantification of the physicochemical properties associated to every point in a 3D surface immersed in a liquid environment. This is of special interest for biological samples and particularly for marine biofilms, so we have been able to measure these properties directly in natural seawater. In this article FD-AFM methods have been used to characterise the morphology of biofilms of S. algae grown in different nutritive media and to obtain quantitative mapping of elastic modulus and adhesion forces of the resulting biofilms. Anti-infection chemical Results and discussion Influence of the culture

conditions on bacterial growth and slime production Bacterial growth was initially checked in agar plates of the nine culture media at 20°C, 26°C and 32°C after 24 h in order to qualitatively

assess the best range of temperatures. Selleckchem LY411575 From these initial observations, the lower incubation temperature was ruled out due to poor growth. Media with different characteristics were chosen (Additional file 1: Table S1): Marine broth (MB) is a widespread culture medium for marine bacteria that contains high levels of salts as well as trace elements. Its main difference with the Supplemented Artificial Seawater medium (SASW) and Luria Marine Broth (LMB) is the amount of primary sources of carbon and nitrogen, and the trace element content [35].

Väätänen Nine-Salt Solution (VNSS) is a complex salt-rich medium that is frequently used in marine Metabolism inhibitor microbiology [36, 37]. Mueller-Hinton is the standard culture medium in antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and often it needs to be supplemented with salts (2%, MH2) and/or calcium and magnesium (cation-adjusted MH2, CAMH2) to support the growth of certain bacteria like pathogenic vibrios [38, 39] and halophilic marine strains [40, 41]. Brain-Heart Infusion and Tryptic Soy Broth were also supplemented with 2% NaCl and designed as BHI2 and TSB2, respectively. These NaCl-supplemented rich media have been previously employed in the culture of Pseudoalteromonas Dipeptidyl peptidase and Vibrio species [15, 16]. A minimal medium (MMM) was included to evaluate the effect of a limiting environment on biofilm formation. The actual starting cell density was 7.0 ± 0.8 × 105 cfu/ml. Figure 2 shows the total cell density (A) and biofilm biomass (B) in different media at the two selected temperatures. In order to determine the effect of the medium, the temperature and the interaction on the total cell density and biofilm formation, ANOVA tests were performed. Without loss of generality for the goal of the study, optical density (OD) values below 0.05 have been considered as no total cell density/no biofilm formation and have not been taken into account for the ANOVAs purposes (Additional file 2: Table S2).

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