In contrast to decreases In Arc, c-fos and zif268 expression prod

In contrast to decreases In Arc, c-fos and zif268 expression produced by noradrenergic lesions of mature brain, lesions on PND 3 yield a strikingly different effect. Neonatal lesions produce increases in c-fos and zif268 expression in specific frontal cortical layers on PND 13, while Arc shows no change. These lesions lead to increases in zif268 expression in frontal cortical layers on PND 25, with no changes in c-fos or Arc

expression, and on PND 60 they produce a significant increase in c-fos expression in hippocampus with no significant changes in Arc or zif268 expression. 2-[2-(2-Methoxy-1,4-benzo-dioxanyl)]imidazoline hydrochloride (RX821002), an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor (A2AR) antagonist, administered to control PND 60 animals produces elevations of Arc, zif268 and c-fos mRNAs. This response was eliminated in animals lesioned with DSP-4 on PND 3. These data indicate that norepinephrine regulation of IEG expression differs in Z-VAD-FMK in vivo developing and mature brain and that loss of developmental norepinephrine leads to abnormally high postnatal IEG expression. Previous studies have shown an important role for norepinephrine in brain development. Our data support the idea that norepinephrine plays an Sotrastaurin nmr important role during CNS development and that changes in noradrenergic

signaling during development may have long lasting effects, potentially on learning and memory. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report that Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase somatostatin receptor subtype 1 (sst1) associates in vivo and in vitro with synapse-associated

protein SAP) 97, a membrane-associated guanylate kinase homolog implicated as a scaffolding protein in the structural organization of specialized membrane complexes in various tissues, including the CNS. SAP97 and sst1 were coimmunoprecipitated from rodent brain and from transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and pull-down experiments demonstrated that the interaction is dependent on the class I PDZ binding motif in sst1 carboxyterminus. Calorimetric titration indicated that the postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) 2 domain of SAP97 provides the main contribution to the interaction. We noticed substantial sst1 immunoreactivity in differentiating cortical neurons in culture which declined as the cultures matured. The sst1 immunoreactivity extended, together with SAP97 to neuronal growth cones. Somatostatin (1 mu M) triggered retraction of the filopodia and lamellipodia in the growth cones. This growth cone collapse was enhanced by overexpression of green fluorescent protein-tagged sst1, whereas sst1 mutant lacking the PDZ binding motif had no effect. These findings suggest a role for somatostatin signaling In the regulation of growth cone stability, which may involve PDZ domain proteins Interacting with sst1 and/or other somatostatin receptors.

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