In addition, significant differences in plasmid replicon content were observed between typical and atypical EPEC strains (Table 2). In particularly, the IncI1 replicon occurred Liproxstatin-1 cell line significantly more often among typical strains, whereas the IncFrep replicon was observed significantly more
often among atypical strains (p = 0.013 and p = 0.001, respectively) The IncT, IncFIIA, IncFIA, IncX, IncHI1, IncN, IncHI2, and IncL/M replicons were not detected in any of the strains. Among AL3818 research buy the replicon profiles identified, IncFIB occurring alone was the most common (see Additional file 1). Antimicrobial resistance is increasing worldwide. Resistance in intestinal organisms is of interest it can compromise treatment of infections caused by pathogenic strains but also because the gut is a complex, diverse and heavily populated niche and resistant organisms there can transmit selleck compound resistance genes horizontally. Many investigators have documented a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among EPEC strains in different
parts of the world but few of these studies have been performed on recent isolates [22, 32–35]. Resistance appeared at the beginning of the antibiotic era and epidemiological data suggests that its prevalence is associated with the 1970s and 1980s and diversity of antimicrobial use [33, 35]. The genetic basis for this resistance and the evolutionary consequences are rarely studied. Conclusion Our data show that the EPEC resistance plasmid is found commonly in typical EPEC, and is uncommon in atypical EPEC, consistent with earlier data. However, previous evaluation of the distribution of the EPEC multiresistance
plasmid in a small collection of archival strains suggested that it was limited to O111:H2 and O119:H2 strains, which carry the EAF plasmid or vestiges of it. In this study, the host range of the EPEC resistance plasmid, although still largely restricted to typical EPEC, was seen to be greater in recent isolates. Methods Bacterial strains The 149 strains examined in this report were isolated between 1997-1999 during 6-phosphogluconolactonase an epidemiological study of acute diarrhea in children <2 years of age conducted in different regions of Brazil and between 2002 to 2003 from children <5 years of age with diarrhea in São Paulo [9, 10, 21]. These strains were identified by hybridization with eae and/or EAF probe sequences and serotyped. Most of these EPEC strains had also been characterized by the presence of LEE-associated DNA sequences, and bfpA and perA sequences, and adherence to HEp-2 cells . Preparation of bacterial DNA and PCR amplification for detection of the EPEC conjugative multiresistance plasmid, class 1 integron and plasmidreplicons The bacterial DNA was extracted from a single colony on a LB agar plate. The bacteria were suspended in 500 μl of 1X phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) solution, boiled for 10 min, and centrifuged.