Each data set is analyzed separately and the findings integrated

Each data set is analyzed separately and the findings integrated in the results. In this study, baseline outcome variables were measured quantitatively, followed by implementation of the intervention (Living with Hope Program) which was given to all participants. Participants were then followed over

time with repeated measures of outcome variables. The qualitative data, embedded in the intervention, was collected as part of the Living with Hope Program in the form of a hope directed journaling activity entitled “Stories of the Present”. The study received ethical approval from Alberta Cancer Research Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Ethics Board, University of Saskatchewan Behavioral Ethics Review Board and the Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region Research Review Board. Figure 2 Study Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Design. Living with hope program The Living with Hope Program consisted of: a) viewing the Living with Hope film which features caregivers of patients with advanced cancer describing their hope and b) a hope activity entitled “Stories of the Present”. The hope activity involved participants writing about their challenges, what gave them hope and what they felt would give them hope. Participants were encouraged to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical write their “Stories of the Present”

over a two week time period. The two week time period was based on a review of journaling studies and older adults which suggested that the optimum length of time for journaling is between one and two weeks [23]. The dosage (amount of the intervention received)

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the Living with Hope Program was buy VX-770 determined by the number of journal entries. Measures Herth hope index (HHI) This 12 item scale measuring hope provides a total summary score and three sub-scales scores: a) temporality and future, b) positive readiness and expectancy, and c) interconnectedness [24]. These three subscales are consistent with descriptions of hope by caregivers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the preliminary work completed by the research team. Summative scores range from 12–48, with a higher score denoting greater hope. Reliability (test-retest) is reported to be r=0. 91, p<0. 05 and validity (concurrent validity) at r=0. 84, p<.0 05; (criterion), Vasopressin Receptor r=. 92, p< 0.05; (divergent), r=−.73, p<0. 05) [5,24]. General self efficacy scale (GSES) This scale consists of 10 items with responses from 0–4. Higher the scores on the General Self Efficacy Scale, which has a maximum score of 40, indicate higher participant feelings of self-efficacy. The General Self Efficacy Scale was chosen as a measure for this study because it has been found to be a reliable and valid measure in many populations [20]. It has been used successfully in a study of male caregivers of persons with breast cancer [25]. Short form 12 (SF-12v2) version 2 The SF-12v2 does not produce a total quality of life summary scores, but a physical component summary score (PCS), and a mental health summary score (MCS). The PCS and MCS have a maximum score of 100.

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