DECLARATION OF INTERESTS The authors have no competing interests to declare.
Communicating the health risks of smoking and promoting smoking cessation ref 1 remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy and programs. The World Health Organization��s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) includes two articles dedicated to health communication (WHO, 2003). Article 11 includes recommendations for large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure for product constituents and emissions. Article 11 also recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms ��light�� and ��mild.
�� Article 11 advises parties to consider broader restrictions on other descriptors and promotional elements of pack design (WHO, 2008). The objectives of Article 12 guidelines are to identify key measures needed to successfully educate, communicate with, and train people on the health, social, economic, and environmental consequences of tobacco production and consumption, and exposure to tobacco smoke and to guide Parties in establishing a sustainable infrastructure to support these measures (WHO, 2010). The guidelines recognize that individuals have a fundamental right to accurate information about the risks of tobacco use. An ultimate objective of warning the public of the dangers of tobacco is to change social norms about tobacco use, leading people to quit or avoid tobacco use and to increase support for other tobacco-control measures.
Many tobacco users worldwide are poorly informed about the full extent of the risks of tobacco use to themselves and others (Hammond et al., 2006; Siahpush, McNeill, Hammond, & Fong, 2006; WHO, 2011) and hold inaccurate beliefs about the addictive nature of tobacco use, likelihood of quitting, the nature of disease-specific risks, and the content of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Mass media campaign strategies with potential for high population reach can do much to redress these misconceptions, provide timely motivation Brefeldin_A for individual behavior change, increase the likelihood of tobacco policy advancement, and increase social norms that reduce tobacco use. As with other FCTC guidelines, Articles 11 and 12 draw on the best available evidence, practices, and experience. The current paper will provide a brief history of regulation and policy related to Articles 11 and 12, a summary of evidence on the effectiveness of these measures, as well a list of evidence gaps and needs.