Although RXLR-dEER-bearing proteins could cross the plasma cell m

Although RXLR-dEER-bearing proteins could cross the plasma cell membrane autonomously, some evidence suggests that entry may be more efficient at the haustorium,

where the plant cell wall was penetrated [26], emphasizing the analogy of the haustorial hypha with the T3SS injectisome and the nematode stylet. Subsequent to characterization of Avr1b and Avr3a, a super-family of 385 RXLR dEER proteins in the P. sojae genome AZD6094 molecular weight and 370 in the P. ramorum genome was identified using bioinformatic approaches such as recursive BLAST and HMM searches [21]. The existence of this predictive motif among oomycete effectors with varying levels of experimental characterization can be used to highlight the importance of evidence codes CFTRinh-172 solubility dmso in GO annotation. Given the experimental evidence, the Phytophthora Avr1b and Avr3a gene products can be annotated with “”GO:0052048 interaction with host via secreted substance”" with an experimental evidence code. Once a specific structure or mechanism is identified through which the effectors are delivered, a more specific child term will be created and applied. Given the presence of the RXLR-dEER motif in the bioinformatically characterized proteins, it is appropriate to infer that like Avr1b, these proteins are

also targeted to the host cell and can be annotated to “”GO:0052048 interaction with host via secreted substance”". However, in these cases the annotation would be accompanied by the evidence code “”Inferred from Sequence Model”" Idelalisib ic50 (ISM) with the Avr1b protein accession documented as the experimentally characterized effector. Where do they lay camp when in

the host? Prokaryote and eukaryotic pathogens alike secrete effector proteins into the host apoplast as well as into host cells where they may localize to the cytoplasm and subcellular compartments, including the mitochondrion, nucleus and the chloroplast. Specific terms were developed by the PAMGO consortium under the cellular component ontology to describe gene products from one organism (symbiont) that act in the extracellular and cellular regions of another organism (host) cell. These terms are different from terms developed to describe gene products from an organism acting in cellular locations within the same organism. Gene products from one organism acting in regions of another organism are described with “”GO:0043657 host cell”" and its child terms. The term host cell has a “”part-of”" relationship with the parent term “”GO:0018995 host”" which in turn is a child term of “”GO:0043245 extraorganismal space”". In contrast, gene products from one organism acting in regions of that same organism are captured under “”GO:0044464 cell part”" and its child terms. “”Cell part”" has a part of relationship with “”GO:0005623 cell”" which is a direct child of the root “”GO:0005575 cellular component”".

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