Also, the umbilical access is a well-known and standardized site

Also, the umbilical access is a well-known and standardized site for access Calcitriol vitamin d to the abdominal cavity for laparoscopic procedures [13]. However, many authors have described an SPA appendectomy as a step toward less invasive surgical procedures [14]. According to surgeon’s experience, umbilical access does not add new risks, and it makes the operating view the same as in standard laparoscopic appendectomy. In this study no differences were found comparing the trocar placement time of each group, and all the trocars were placed under direct vision. Once the pneumoperitoneum is performed, both techniques can allow making an intraoperative differential diagnosis with other pathologies [15]. In our series, examination of distal ileum, female genital organs including the tubes and the ovary, and other organs situated in pelvic area can be accomplished without difficulties.

We had to reconvert to an open surgery approach in a cecal carcinoma misdiagnosed preoperatively. When the fascia is exposed, it is possible to enter the abdominal cavity with various devices such as 10mm trocar and two 5mm trocars. The single-port technique allows easy use of a 10-mm instrument if needed without the burden of having to work with a 5mm and a 10mm port so close together. Due to the vicinity of the ports at the fascial plane in the umbilicus, the operative technique can be more difficult. In some cases the crossing of the instruments (or specially designed instruments) makes the procedure more challenging and initiating new learning curve for surgeon.

It has not been defined yet the number of cases needed to gain good experience in SPAA. But it seems that 10 cases should be the number in order to perform a correct learning curve with previous experience in laparoscopic surgery [16]. In our opinion appendectomy is relatively easy operation performed in a relatively safe abdominal area (no much vital organs). This novel approach should probably be the first one to be considered before beginning SPA cholecystectomies, which are more demanding. When drain is required, right side placement is suitable and can be placed under direct vision. A very important issue is to consider the conversion from single-incision (SPAA) technique to standard laparoscopic technique. Fear from intraoperative complications is due to inadequate visualization or mobilization of the appendix.

For this reason, we consider that a two-port or three-port conversion should not be considered a failure or complication. This concept is very important and is absolutely mandatory in emergency surgeries. An optimum safe view must be achieved. If this is not achieved then the addition of ports is recommended. Batimastat The opinion of the authors concerning the visualization in this series was not as optimal as with typical laparoscopy.

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