99, P=0.002; Mvan: F=13.26, P=0.004; Mvan and laboratory variables fit collinearly). Thus the different selleck chem Perifosine classes of bacteria were not randomly distributed but linked to the breeding site where mosquitoes grew up. As seen in Figure 2, Flavobacteria were related to laboratory mosquitoes, whereas Alphaproteobacteria were less diverse and related to the Nkolondom locality. The remaining classes cluster along the Mvan locality. These results confirm the higher diversity of bacterial taxa in mosquitoes collected in Mvan as compared with Nkolondom, and the paucity of the gut microbiota in laboratory-reared mosquitoes as compared with mosquitoes from the wild. Figure 3 Redundancy analysis for gut bacterial communities (taxonomic rank=class) in field and laboratory mosquitoes.
Relationship between gut microbial communities and P. falciparum prevalence We then investigated potential relationships between the gut microbial communities of field mosquitoes and the P. falciparum infection status. We performed the RDA by plotting the infection status and the origin of the field mosquitoes against the family taxonomic rank, allowing the analysis of more precise bacterial taxa (Figure S2). The first and second constrained axes corresponded to 35% and 7% of the total variance in the bacterial community, respectively, and explained all the cumulative percentage variance of the family-environment relationship. All environmental variables were significant (Monte Carlo test, Nkolondom: F=14.02, P=0.002; collinearity detected with Mvan variables; infection variable F=3.00, P=0.042).
The first axis alone explained 84.1% of the variance of the family environment relationship and was related to the mosquito origin (Mvan and Nkolondom). In concordance with the results already described for the Alphaproteobacteria class, the Acetobacteriaceae family was related to mosquitoes from Nkolondom, and most of the family is represented by Asaia spp. By contrast, the mosquitoes from Mvan exhibited a larger bacterial diversity. Interestingly, the RDA revealed a relationship between the Enterobacteriaceae family and the infection status along axis 2 (Figure S2). This result suggests that mosquitoes harboring Enterobacteriacae are more likely to be infected by P. falciparum. A correlation between the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut and P.
falciparum infection was further detected using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test (P=0.004; Figure 4), indicating that P. falciparum-positive mosquitoes were hosting more Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Figure 4 AV-951 Relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in P. falciparum non-infected (Pf?) or P. falciparum infected (Pf+) mosquitoes. Discussion We provide here an in-depth description of the microbial communities in the midgut of the malaria mosquito.