7, (d spacing = 0 76 nm) The increase in d spacing is due to the

7, (d spacing = 0.76 nm). The increase in d spacing is due to the intercalation of water molecules and the formation of oxygen-containing functional groups between the layers of the graphite [51]. In contrast with GO, S-rGO shows a broad peak centered at 2θ = 26.4° corresponding to a d spacing of 0.36 nm which may be due to the restacking of graphene

layers. The disappearance of 002 reflection peak of graphite oxide and the appearance of a broad band at 2θ = 26.4° in the S-rGOs indicate the formation of few-layer graphene, which are close to that learn more of pristine 3-Methyladenine ic50 graphene nanosheets (26.6°), revealing the reduction of graphene oxide by spinach leaf extract. These XRD results suggest that spinach leaf extracts are capable in reducing GO and in removing intercalated water molecules and oxide groups in GO. Figure 2 XRD patterns of GO (A) and S-rGO (B). DLS analysis We employed dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique to elucidate the status of GO and S-rGO sheets in aqueous solution. DLS measurement was performed in aqueous solution to elucidate the size of reduced graphene oxide after reaction with GO. It was found that the average hydrodynamic diameter (AHD) of GO was 2,000 ± 50 nm (Figure 3). However, after the reduction of GO with spinach

leaf extract, an AHD of 3,000 ± 70 nm was obtained under the same instrumental AZD6738 in vivo conditions, which was relatively higher than that of GO. This noticeable change in size distribution indicated that SLE not only acted Myosin as a reducing agent to prepare rGO but also was functionalized on the surfaces of the resulting rGO, leading to an increased size. Stankovich et al. [27] reported that functionalized graphene nanoplates treated with isocyanate show an AHD of 560 ± 60 nm, which is not their average dimension but rather the effective hydrodynamic diameter of an equivalent sphere described by the tumbling of the platelets. Wang et al. [52] reported similar observations using heparin as a reducing agent, and they found that the average sizes

of GO and rGO were 302.5 and 392.4 nm, respectively, under the same instrumental conditions, which were relatively larger than that of GO. Liu and coworkers [53] reported that the size of various graphene materials such as Gt, GtO, GO, and rGO dispersions are 5.25, 4.42, 0.56, and 2.93 μm, respectively, and the increasing size could be the aggregation of rGO fragments. The DLS results only show the size differences between GO and rGO [53]. In order to confirm further sizes, the dispersions were further dropped on aluminum foil and dozens of SEM images were taken randomly for each sample. Figure 3 Hydrodynamic size distribution of GO (A) and S-rGO (B). FTIR analysis FTIR is a valuable technique to prove the degree of GO reduction.

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