6% versus placebo). Additionally, lean mass (LM) increased from 54.2 ±3.5 kg to 55.4 ± 3.7 kg (p = 0.035) in the Game Time® group and remained unchanged in the placebo group, while there
were no significant changes for either group in percent body fat . There has been surprisingly little investigation into the efficacy of these supplements in individuals that are already resistance-trained. Pictilisib clinical trial Schmitz et al.  provided two types of MIPS containing similar creatine, carbohydrate, and protein profiles, but varying in some proprietary ingredients, for consumption immediately before and during RT to men who had been resistance training regularly for at least two years. Following 9 weeks of 4 days/week progressive RT, both groups demonstrated improvements in chest press one repetition maximum (1RM) (MIPS: +19.8% vs. Comparator Product +15.3% p < 0.019 ), and LM (MIPS: + 2.4% vs. Comparator Product +0.27%, p < 0.049 Wortmannin ). However, without a placebo group, it is difficult to say what proportion of these improvements was induced by RT alone. Shelmadine et al.  and Spillane et al.  have published data that are distinctly relevant to the current study. These groups both examined the effects of 28 days of MIPS during identical RT programs in untrained men. Shelmadine used
the commercially available pre-workout supplement NO-Shotgun® (SHOT, Vital Pharmaceuticals,
Davie FL), containing whey protein, caffeine, creatine, beta alanine, BCAAs, and L-arginine with 18 untrained males and compared it to an isocaloric placebo . Maximal 1RM for upper body LY333531 solubility dmso strength improved for both groups, Fossariinae but more so for MIPS (MIPS: +8.82 ± 1.78% vs. placebo: +0.73 ± 2.30%, p = 0.003), while there were no significant differences in improvements in 1RM lower body strength (MIPS: +18.4 ± 1.91% vs. placebo: +11.99 ± 2.79%, p = 0.10). MIPS also increased fat free mass greater than placebo (MIPS: +4.75 ± 0.50% vs. PL: +1.69 ± 0.54%, p = 0.001). Spillane et al.  used SHOT in the same pre-workout manner as Shelmadine et al., but NO-Synthesize® (SYNTH, Vital Pharmaceuticals, Davie FL) was also consumed immediately post-RT and upon waking on non-training days in untrained men. Participants in both the SHOT/SYNTH and placebo groups improved body composition and strength as a result of training, however, the SHOT/SYNTH group had greater increases in fat free mass (p = 0.03), upper (p = 0.02) and lower body (p = 0.04) 1RM strength. While the findings of Shelmadine  and Spillane  are promising, especially in regards to significant increases in muscle mass with MIPS use, assumptions must be made to draw conclusions about populations other than untrained males.