3) and CD4+ (data not presented) T cell responses relative to the

3) and CD4+ (data not presented) T cell responses relative to the vectors that expressed the cell surface expressed antigen following a single administration; this was observed at both 2 and 6 weeks post-immunization time points and was most evident following a single administration ABT888 of vector. This result is in agreement with results reported by Qiu et al. [29], who showed that a secreted form of HIV gag induced stronger cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and T-helper responses than a cytoplasmic

version. Our results indicate that native forms of the blood stage antigens AMA1 or MSP142 are glycosylated following adenovector delivery, and that glycosylation does not interfere with functional antibody responses. Removal of N-linked glycosylation sites did not increase the levels of antibody or activity of antibodies to AMA1 or MSP142 in the GIA. In contrast, two of the three glycosylation site

mutants induced lower antibody titers and less robust functional antibody responses and one out of three induced responses that were similar to the native sequence control. It is possible that changes in the primary sequence that are intended to destroy N-linked glycosylation sites can have other effects on the protein that affect its capacity for inducing functional antibody responses. There is considerable evidence that heterologous adenovector prime-boost regimens induce better T cell responses than homologous immunization regimens [20], [21] and [22]. In our studies, Ad5 vectors that express AMA1 or MSP142 induced robust T cell responses following a single administration of vector. In general, delivery of a second dose of Ad5

Selleck NLG919 vector 6 weeks after the priming dose did MTMR9 not increase antigen-specific T cell responses. The one exception was with an adenovector that expressed the intracellular form of AMA1 where a suboptimal T cell response induced by the priming dose was efficiently boosted by a second administration of vector. In contrast, good boosting of adenovector primed AMA1 and MSP142 antibody responses was observed. These findings suggest that a homologous two-dose Ad5 immunization strategy may have merit for poorly immunogenic antigens and for diseases where antigen-specific antibody responses are critical clinical endpoints. In summary, we have demonstrated the induction of robust T cell and antibody responses following single-dose and two-dose immunization regimens of AdPfAMA1 and AdPfMSP142. The antibodies potently suppressed the growth of blood stage parasites in vitro. These data establish Ad5 vectors as an excellent platform for blood stage malaria vaccine development, and suggest that clinical evaluation of such vaccines is warranted. Contributors: We are grateful to Samuel Moretz, Hong Zhou, Ababacar Diouf, and Greg Tullo for conducting the GIA studies, and to Michael Fay, Kazutoyo Miura and Christopher Reiter for comments on the statistical analysis.

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