The results showed that 50% of the sequences are encoded within I

The results showed that 50% of the sequences are encoded within IGRs, 90% of which are situated between 16S and 23S rRNA (shown on the right), 31% are tRNA sequences, 6% are part of rRNA sequences, 9% completely overlap with ORFs, and 4% partially overlap with ORFs. Analyses of the INCB28060 research buy cDNA sequences encoding partial ORFs indicated which genes were expressed in the presence of tigecycline. As stated above, 9% of the sequences identified matched to rRNAs, in addition to a further

sequence which was found to overlap the 30S ribosomal protein and another mapped to elongation factor tu. This is perhaps not surprising, given that the specific target for tigecycline is the ribosome [19]. On the other hand, sequences overlapping known stress-response genes were also captured in the cDNA library, e.g. dinF and a gene encoding a putative outer membrane protein (SL1344_1151). The dinF gene is a member of the SOS response family and encodes an efflux pump which belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family [31], and SL1344_1151, encoding a putative outer membrane protein homologous to ycfR in E. coli, which influences biofilm formation through stress response and surface hydrophobicity [32]. The expression of these genes supports our hypothesis that challenge at half the MIC of tigecycline triggers a stress response. Of note, the cDNA library also contained

sequences of different lengths that mapped to open reading frames, which we postulate to be a result of mRNA degradation, Semaxanib order rather than a representation of bona fide sRNA regulators. Meanwhile, 4% of all sequences that partially overlap ORFs, all do so at the 5’ end of the ORFs. This suggests that these sequences might be 5’ selleck chemicals llc untranslated regions, or encode riboswitches and/or control the expression of the downstream genes. Northern blot verification

Northern blot analysis was performed on RNA extracted from SL1344 that were either unchallenged or challenged with half the MIC of tigecycline. Since most sRNAs are produced from IGRs [30], only sequences from these regions (100 out of 200 in total) were selected for further validation by northern blot analysis. As 90% of the IGR sequences are located between 16S and 23S rRNA coding sequences, most of which are identical, there were 20 unique IGR sequences (including those located between 16S and 23S rRNA) that were assayed, of which four (encoding sYJ5, sYJ20, sYJ75 and sYJ118) were found to consistently show elevated expression with tigecycline challenge (Figure 2A). The remaining sRNA candidates were either not detectable by northern blots, or did not show differential levels of transcription. Correspondingly all further analyses focused on these four sRNAs. The relative fold increase in sRNA expression was determined by northern blots in challenged versus unchallenged cells.

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