PubMedCrossRef 35 Caughey GE: The effect on human tumour necrosi

PubMedCrossRef 35. Caughey GE: The effect on human tumour necrosis factor

α and interleukin 1 production of diets NU7026 mouse enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995, 63:116–122. 36. Hellsten Y, Frandsen U, Orthenblad N, Sjødin B, Richter EA: VX-661 in vivo Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise: a role in inflammation. J Physiol 1997,498(Pt 1):239–48.PubMed 37. Steensberg A, Keller C, Starkie RL, Osada T, Febbraio MA, Pedersen BK: IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression in, and release from, contracting human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002,283(6):E1272–8.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DH, as post-graduate student, was responsible for recruiting the study participants, applying the study HKI-272 intervention, recording the data and writing the first draft of the manuscript. GLO, as his director of study developed the idea, trained DH in the laboratory skills, helped with the statistical analyses and refined the final version of the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Fluid loss during

strenuous, long duration exercise is commonplace and can result in thermal stress, impaired cognition and cardiovascular function, accelerated fatigue, and impaired exercise performance [1, 2]. Recommendations for fluid intake before, during, and following exercise are well described [3, 4] and are typically followed by most athletes seeking enhanced physical performance. Abiding by such recommendations appears

particularly important when exercising in hot and humid environmental conditions, where fluid loss may be high [5]. Although water is often suggested to many general fitness enthusiasts who may exercise for relatively short periods of time ( < 75 minutes), carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drinks are highly recommended and appear to be the beverage of choice for most serious athletes--aerobic athletes in particular [2]. This is partly fueled by scientific recommendations for the consumption of such beverages [6, 7], and partly by the widespread marketing campaigns of large sport Unoprostone nutrition and beverage companies. Regardless, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages are widely consumed and represent a multi-billion dollar segment of the food and beverage industry [8]. Some individuals prefer natural alternatives to the manufactured sport drinks. For example, many sport drinks contain fructose and/or maltodextrin, artificial flavors and sweeteners, and added electrolytes (e.g., sodium, potassium). With more emphasis recently within the sport nutrition industry on “”natural”" beverages, some athletes and recreationally active fitness enthusiasts seek alternatives to the manufactured sport drink.

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