Here, we review our current understanding of how mechanical force

Here, we review our current understanding of how mechanical forces acting Selleckchem VE-821 on the kinetochore are linked to biochemical changes to control chromosome segregation. We discuss models for tension

sensing and regulation of kinetochore function downstream of Aurora B, and mechanisms that specify Aurora B localization to the inner centromere and determine its interactions with substrates at distinct locations.”
“The extraordinarily stable, non-covalent interaction between avidin and biotin is one of the most commonly exploited tools in chemistry and biology. Methods for derivatization with biotin of a variety of molecules (in particular, proteins) have been introduced, in order to allow their efficient recovery, immobilization and detection with avidin-based reagents. The field has evolved very rapidly and the Q-VD-Oph price applications have become more and more sophisticated..

Cell surface protein studies have enormously benefited from refinements of this technology. It is now possible to specifically biotinylate one single membrane protein or to fish out a membrane receptor bound to its ligand. The release of biotinylated molecules from the avidin-based reagents, however, may still represent a major problem, due to the stability of the complex. This review will examine the biotin-avidin technology for the study of cell surface proteins, discussing reagents and techniques as well as examples of applications in quantitative proteomics.”
“Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins that assemble into hetero-oligomeric complexes and higher-order structures such as filaments, rings, hourglasses or gauzes. Septins are usually associated with a discrete region of the plasma membrane and function as a cell scaffold or diffusion barrier to effect cytokinesis, cell polarity, and many other functions. Recent structural studies of septin

complexes have provided mechanistic insights into septin filament assembly, but key questions concerning the assembly, dynamics, and function of different septin structures remain to be answered.”
“Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can give rise to any adult cell type and thus offer enormous potential for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Molecular biomarkers serve as valuable tools to classify and isolate ESCs and to monitor their Chlormezanone differentiation state by antibody-based techniques. A number of biomarkers, such as certain cell surface antigens, are used to assign pluripotent ESCs; however, accumulating evidence suggests that ESCs are heterogeneous in morphology, phenotype and function, and are thereby classified into subpopulations characterized by multiple sets of molecular biomarkers. Biomarker discovery is also important for ESC biology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that regulate pluripotency and differentiation. This review summarizes studies of ESC biomarker discovery.

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